Yıl 2018, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, Sayfalar 92 - 110 2018-07-20

Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey

Güney Çetinkaya [1] , Mustafa Yıldız [2] , Mehmet Ali Özçelik [3]

42 46

National parks are considered to be the significant tourism and recreation areas that are widely used in many countries. Although these areas are widespread in Turkey, it is thought that their resource value is thought to be underestimated. For this reason the purpose of this research is to identify the constraints in regards to use of national parks by local people and study the effects of demographic features on constraints. Since Antalya possesses a good number of areas to be used as national parks in Turkey, a mixed method research was designed. In the first stage of the study 100 people who were chosen as samples in Antalya have been interviewed. In the second stage a questionnaire was conducted to 2367 people. As the theoretical framework of the study, a three-dimensional leisure constraints model was used. In the study lack of information/facilities (structural) is the main restrictive aspect for the people’s use of national parks. It is established that this was followed, respectively, by accessibility/finance (structural), maintenance (structural), social (interpersonal) and individual/psychological (intrapersonal) aspects. It is also established that demographic features such as; sex, age, marital status, having a child, income and education levels effect use of national parks. After all, existence of structural constraints and dominant national park use are assumed to be advantageous in constraint management. It is suggested, within this coverage that the Turkish National Parks and the Tourism Authorities should change their management strategies on the matter.

Outdoor recreation, national parks, leisure constraints, local people, Antalya, Turkey
  • Floyd, M., Nicholas, L., Lee, I., Lee, J. H., & Scott, D. (2006). Social Stratification in Recreational Fishing Participation Research and Policy Implications. Leisure Sciences, 28(4), 351-368. doi:10.1080/01490400600745860
  • General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks. (2017, 10 20). Retrieved from http://www.milliparklar.gov.tr/anasayfa/resimlihaber/17-02-21/M%C4%B0LL%C4%B0_PARKLAR_VE_TAB%C4%B0AT_PARKLARINDA_HEDEFLER_A%C5%9EILDI_YEN%C4%B0_B%C4%B0R_REKORA_%C4%B0MZA_ATILDI%E2%80%A6.aspx?sflang=tr
  • Ghimire, R., Green, G. T., Poudyal, N. C., & Cordell, H. K. (2014). An Analysis of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 32(4), 52-67.
  • Godbey, G., Graefe, A., & James, S. (1992). The benefits of local recreation and park services: A nationwide study of the perceptions of the American public. Arlington: National Recreation and Park Association.
  • Greene, J. C., Kreider, H., & Mayer, E. (2005). Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Social Inquiry. In B. Somekh, & C. Lewin, Research Methods in the Social Sciences (pp. 274-282). London: Sage.
  • Hubbard, J., & Mannell, R. C. (2001). Testing Competing Models of the Leisure Constraint Negotiation Process in a Corporate Employee Recreation Setting. Leisure Sciences, 23(3), 145-163. doi:10.1080/014904001316896846
  • Iso-Ahola, S. E., Jackson, E., & Dunn, E. (1994). Starting, Ceasing, and Replacing Leisure Activities Over The Life-Span. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(3), 227-249.
  • Jackson, E. L. (1988). Leisure constraints: A survey of past research. Leisure Sciences, 10, 203-215. doi:10.1080/01490408809512190
  • Johnson, C. Y., Bowker, J. M., & Cordell, H. K. (2001). Outdoor Recreation Constraints: An Examination of Race, Gender, and Rural Dwelling. Southern Rural Sociology, 17, 111-133.
  • Kelly, J. (1996). Leisure. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Alberta Community Development. (2000). 2000 Alberta Recreation Survey. Alberta: Sport and Recreation Branch.
  • Kruger, E. A., & Douglas, A. (2015). Constraints to consumption of South Africa's national parks among the emerging domestic tourism market. Development Southern Africa, 32(3), 303-319. doi:10.1080/0376835X.2015.1010712
  • Lawton, L. J., & Weaver, D. B. (2008). Factors Associated with Non-visitation by Area to Congaree National Park, South Carolina. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26(4), 66-82.
  • Le, Y., & Holmes, N. C. (2012). Barriers to a Backyard National Park: Case study of African American communities in Columbia, SC. Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, 7, 20-35.
  • Lee, J. H., Scott, D., & Floyd, M. F. (2001). Structural inequalities in outdoor recreation participation: A multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(4), 427-449.
  • Miller, R. K., & Washington, K. (2014). Travel & Tourism Market Research 2015-2016. Rockville MD: Richard K Miller & Associates.
  • Mowen, A. J., Payne, L. L., & David, S. (2005). Change and Stability in Park Visitation Constraints Revisited. Leisure Sciences, 27(2), 191-204. doi:10.1080/01490400590912088
  • Nadirova, A., & Jackson, E. J. (2000). Alternative Criterion Variables Against Which to Assess the Impacts of Constraints to Leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(4), 396-405.
  • National Park Service Annual Visitation Highlights. (2017, 10 23). Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/annual-visitation-highlights.htm
  • Nyaupane, G. P., Morais, D. B., & Graefe, A. R. (2004). Nature Tourism Constraints: A cross-activity comparison. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 540-555. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2004.01.006
  • Pennington-Gray, L. A., & Kerstetter, D. L. (2002). Testing a Constraints Model within the Context of Nature-Based Tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 40, 416-423. doi:10.1177/0047287502040004008
  • Alexandris, K., & Carroll, B. (1997). Demographic differences in the perception of constraints on recreational sport participation: Results from a study in Greece. Leisure Studies, 16(2), 107-125. doi:10.1080/026143697375449
  • Pennington-Gray, L., Thapa, B., & Holland, S. (2002). Florida Residents' Constraints to Parks and Public Lands Visitation: An Assessment of the Validity of an Intrapersonal, Interpersonal and Structural Model. World Leisure Journal, 44(4), 51-60. doi:10.1080/04419057.2002.9674291
  • Raymore, L., & Scott, D. (1998). The Characteristics and Activities of Older Adult Visitors to A Metropolitan Park District. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 16, 1-21.
  • Reis, A. C., Thompson-Carr, A., & Lovelock, B. (2012). Parks and families: addressing management facilitators and constraints to outdoor recreation participation. Annals of Leisure Research, 15(4), 315-334. doi:10.1080/11745398.2012.737299
  • Runte, N. S. (2010). National Parks: The American Experience. Colorado: Taylor Trade.
  • Schoonenboom, J., & Johnson, R. B. (2017). How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 69(Supplement 2), 107-131. doi:10.1007/s11577-017-0454-1
  • Scott, D. (2005). The relevance of constraints research to leisure service delivery. In E. L. Jackson, Constraints to Leisure (pp. 279-294). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.
  • Scott, D., & Jackson, E. (1996). Factors That Limit and Strategies That Might Encourage People’s Use of Public Parks. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 12, 79-96.
  • Scott, D., & Kim, C. (1998). Outdoor Recreation Participation and Barriers to Involvement. Texas: Texas Parks and Wildlife Technical Report.
  • Scott, D., & Munson, W. (1994). Perceived constraints to park usage among individuals with low incomes. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 12(4), 79-96.
  • Searle, M. S., & Jackson, E. L. (1985). Socioeconomic variations in perceived barriers to recreation participation among would‐be participants. Leisure Sciences, 7(2), 227-249. doi:10.1080/01490408509512120
  • Association of Turkish Travel Agencies. (2017, 10 20). Retrieved from https://www.tursab.org.tr/tr/turizm-verileri/istatistikler/turist-sayisi-ve-turizm-geliri/2003-gelirsayi-ve-ortalama-harcama_68.html
  • Shores, K. A., Scott, D., & Floyd, M. F. (2007). Constraints to Outdoor Recreation: A Multiple Hierarchy Stratification Perspective. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29(3), 227-246. doi:10.1080/01490400701257948
  • Stevens, T. H., More, T. A., & Markowski-Lindsay, M. (2014). Declining National Park Visitation An Economic Analysis. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(2), 153-164.
  • Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. New Delhi: Sage.
  • Thapa, B. (2012). Why did they not visit? Examining structural constraints to visit Kafue National Park, Zambia. Journal of Ecotourism, 11(1), 74-83. doi:10.1080/14724049.2011.647918
  • Torkildsen, G. (2005). Leisure and recreation management (5th ed.). Oxon: Routledge.
  • Turkish Statistic Institute. (2017, October 17). Income and Living Conditions Survey, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24579
  • Turkish Statistical Institute. (2017, 10 20). Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24638
  • Turkish Statistical Institute. (2017, September 21). Retrieved from Turkish Statistical Institute Web Site: http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/Start.do;jsessionid=RGcRZDhhtw93rcTJvDNmBFLHy2VSDByPYWyfZDT4vxr7Dc222mp7!-1239146684
  • Virden, R., & Yoshioka, C. (1992). The 1992 Arizona Outdoor Recreation Needs Survey. Tempe: Arizona State Parks Board Technical Report.
  • Walker, G. J., & Virden, R. J. (2005). Constraints on outdoor recreation. In E. L. Jackson, Constraints to leisure (pp. 201-219). Pennsylvania: Venture Publishing.
  • Baki, A., & Gökçek, T. (2012). A General Overview of Mixed Method Researches. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 11(42), 01-221.
  • Walker, J. R., & Crompton, J. L. (2013). The impact of five potential institutional barriers on park visitation. Managing Leisure, 18, 61-70. doi:10.1080/13606719.2012.742224
  • Weber, J., & Sultana, S. (2013). Why Do So Few Minority People Visit National Parks? Visitation and the Accessibility of “America’s Best Idea”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103(3), 437-464. doi:10.1080/00045608.2012.689240
  • White, D. D. (2008). A Structural Model of Leisure Constraints Negotiation in Outdoor Recreation. Leisure Sciences, 30(4), 342-359. doi:10.1080/01490400802165131
  • White, H. R., & Bustam, T. D. (2010). Using leisure constraints research to inform outdoor recreation research and natural resource management decisions. Hancock, MI: George Wright Society.
  • Zanon, D., Doucouliagos, C., Hall, J., & Lockstone-Binney, L. (2013). Constraints to Park Visitation: A Meta-Analysis of North American Studies. Leisure Sciences, 35(5), 475-493. doi:10.1080/01490400.2013.831294
  • Chen, X. (2009). African Americans and Wildlands: A case study in Alabama, USA. Journal of Human Ecology, 26, 19-24.
  • Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure Sciences, 9(2), 119-127. doi:10.1080/01490408709512151
  • Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309-320. doi:10.1080/01490409109513147
  • Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oak: Sage .
  • Eagles, P. F., & McCool, S. (2004). Tourism in National Parks and Protected Areas Planning and Management. Oxon: Cabi.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Turizm
Dergi Bölümü Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-1757-5105
Yazar: Güney Çetinkaya (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Mustafa Yıldız
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Mehmet Ali Özçelik
Ülke: Turkey


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ahtr390456, journal = {Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR)}, issn = {2147-9100}, eissn = {2148-7316}, address = {Akdeniz Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {6}, pages = {92 - 110}, doi = {10.30519/ahtr.390456}, title = {Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldız, Mustafa and Özçelik, Mehmet Ali and Çetinkaya, Güney} }
APA Çetinkaya, G , Yıldız, M , Özçelik, M . (2018). Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), 6 (1), 92-110. DOI: 10.30519/ahtr.390456
MLA Çetinkaya, G , Yıldız, M , Özçelik, M . "Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) 6 (2018): 92-110 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/ahtr/issue/38473/390456>
Chicago Çetinkaya, G , Yıldız, M , Özçelik, M . "Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) 6 (2018): 92-110
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey AU - Güney Çetinkaya , Mustafa Yıldız , Mehmet Ali Özçelik Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.390456 DO - 10.30519/ahtr.390456 T2 - Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 92 EP - 110 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - 2147-9100-2148-7316 M3 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.390456 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.390456 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey %A Güney Çetinkaya , Mustafa Yıldız , Mehmet Ali Özçelik %T Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey %D 2018 %J Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) %P 2147-9100-2148-7316 %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30519/ahtr.390456 %U 10.30519/ahtr.390456
ISNAD Çetinkaya, Güney , Yıldız, Mustafa , Özçelik, Mehmet Ali . "Why Do So Few Local People Visit National Parks? Examining Constraints to Antalya’s National Parks, Turkey". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) 6 / 1 (Temmuz 2018): 92-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.390456