Cilt 15, Sayı 1, Sayfalar 17 - 28 2017-04-15

Comparison and Characterization of Pectins Obtained From Citrus Peels
Turunçgil Kabuklarından Elde Edilen Pektinlerin Karakterizasyonu ve Karşılaştırılması

Melih Güzel [1] , Özlem Akpınar [2]

167 482

Pectin is a polysaccharide that is widely used in food industry. It is a linear polymer of α(1,4) linked D-galacturonic acid units with varying degrees of methylation. In the present study, the extraction characterization and comparison of some physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of pectins from lemon, mandarin, orange and grapefruit citrus peels were determined. For the production of pectin, citrus peels were extracted in a solution of citric acid (pH 1) and extracted pectins were precipitated with ethanol. All pectins were high methoxylated while lemon and orange peel pectin had better gel strength and liquid holding capacity than the others. Orange peel pectin had higher thermal stability while lemon peel and grapefruit pectins had a more organized structure than the other pectins.

Pektin, gıda endüstrisinde yaygın olarak kullanılan bir polisakkarittir. Farklı metilasyon derecelerine sahip D-galakturonik asit moleküllerinin α(1,4) glikozidik bağlarla birbirlerine bağlanmasıyla oluşan lineer bir polimerdir. Bu çalışmada limon, mandalina, portakal ve greyfurt turunçgil kabuklarından elde edilen pektinlerin fizikokimyasal, yapısal ve termal özellikleri incelenmiştir. Pektin üretimi için, turunçgil kabukları sitrik asit çözeltisinde (pH 1) ekstrakte edilmiş ve ekstrakte edilen pektin etanol ile çökeltilmiştir. Tüm pektin örneklerinin yüksek metoksilli pektin olduğu, limon ve portakal kabuklarından elde edilen pektinlerin diğer pektin örneklerinden daha iyi jel gücü ve sıvı tutma kapasitesine sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Portakal kabuğundan elde edilen pektinin termal stabilitesi daha yüksek iken limon ve greyfurt kabuğundan elde edilen pektinlerin diğer pektinlere kıyasla daha organize bir yapıya sahip olduğu görülmüştür.

  • [1] Saldamlı, İ., Acar, J., Altuğ, T., Kayahan, M., Temiz, A., Us, F., Köksel, H., Sağlam, F., Uygun, Ü., Elmacı Y., 2005. Gıda Kimyası. (Editör: Saldamlı, İ.), Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yayınları, Ankara, Türkiye, 61-63 p.
  • [2] Thakur, B.R., Singh, R.K., Handa, A.K., Rao, M.A., 1997. Chemistry and uses of pectin – A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 37(1): 47-73.
  • [3] Liu L.S., Kende M., Ruthel G., Fishman M.L., Hicks, K.B., 2006. Pectin/Zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation. Drug Delivery 13(6): 417-423.
  • [4] Zouambia, Y., Moulai-Mostefa, N., Krea, M., 2009. Structural characterization and surface activity of hydrophobically functionalized extracted pectins. Carbohydrate Polymer 78(4): 841-846.
  • [5] Hokputsa, S., Gerddit, W., Pongsamart, S., Inngjerdingen, K., Heinze, T., Koschella, A., Harding, S. E., Paulsen, B.S., 2004. Water-soluble polysaccharides with pharmaceutical importance from Durian rinds (Durio zibethinus Murr.): isolation, fractionation, characterisation and bioactivity. Carbohydrate Polymer 56(4): 471-481.
  • [6] Edashige, Y., Murakami, N., Tsujita, T., 2008. Inhibitory effect of pectin from the segment membrane of citrus fruits on lipase activity. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 54(5): 409-415.
  • [7] Nangia-Makker, P., Hogan, V., Honjo, Y., Baccarini, S., Tait, L., Bresalier, R., Raz, A., 2002. Inhibition of human cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice by oral intake of modified citrus pectin. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94(24):1854-1862.
  • [8] Jackson, C.L., Dreaden, T.M., Theobald, L.K., Tran, N.M., Beal, T.L., Eid, M., Gao, M.Y., Shirley, R.B., Stoffel, M.T., Kumar, M.V., Mohnen, D., 2007. Pectin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells: correlation of apoptotic function with pectin structure. Glycobiology 17(8): 805-819.
  • [9] Yamada, H., 1996. Contribution of pectins on health care. Progress in Biotechnology 14: 173–190.
  • [10] Cemeroğlu, B., Acar, J., 1986. Meyve Sebze İşleme Teknolojisi, Gıda Teknolojisi Derneği Yayınları, Ankara.
  • [11] Gökmen, V., Acar, J., 2004. Fumaric acid in apple juice – A potential indicator of microbial spoilage of apples used as raw material, Food and Contaminants 21(7): 626-631.
  • [12] Ranganna, S., 2008. Pectin, Handbook Of Analysis And Quality Control For Fruit and Vegetable Products, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, India, 31-66p.
  • [13] May, C.D., 1990. Industrial pectins: Sources, production and applications. Carbohydrate Polymers 12: 79-99.
  • [14] Anonymus, 2016. Agriculture Production Data. http://faostat.fao.org. Erişim Tarihi: 12 Ağustos 2016.
  • [15] Anonymus, 2015. Bitkisel Üretim İstatistikleri. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=18706. Erişim Tarihi: 16.Ağustos 2016.
  • [16] Crupi, M.L., Costa, R., Dugo, P., Dugo, G., Mondello, L., 2007. A comprehensive study on the chemical composition and aromatic characteristics of lemon liquor. Food Chemical 105(2): 771–783.
  • [17] Anonymus, 2014. Peel (fruit). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peel_(fruit). Erişim Tarihi: 18Ekim 2016.
  • [18] Başer, H.C., 1997. Tıbbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin İlaç ve Alkollü İçki Sanayilerinde Kullanımı, İstanbul Ticaret Odası Yayınları, İstanbul, 113 s.
  • [19] Oboh, G., Ademosun, A.O., 2012. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels. J. Food Sci. Technol. 49(6): 729–736.
  • [20] Marin, F.R., Soler-Rivas, C., Benavente-Garcia, O., Castillo, J., Perez-Alvarez, J.A., 2007. By-products from different citrus processes as a source of customized functional fibres. Food Chemistry 100(2): 736–741.
  • [21] Turhan, İ., Tetik, N., Karhan, M., 2006. Turunçgil kabuk yağlarının elde edilmesi ve gıda endüstrisinde kullanımı. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi 3: 71-77.
  • [22] Yaman, K., 2012. Bitkisel atıkların değerlendirilmesi ve ekonomik önemi. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 12(2): 339-348.
  • [23] Pinzon, K.M., Rodriguez, M.C., Sandova, E.R., 2013. Effect of drying conditions on the physical properties of impregnated orange peel. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 30(3): 667-676.
  • [24] Kliemann, E., Simas, K.N., Amante,E.R., Prudencio, E.S., Teofilo, R.F., Ferreira, M.C., Renata Amboni, D.M.C., 2009. Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) using response surface methodology. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44(3): 476–483.
  • [25] AOAC, 1989. Officials Methods of Analysis, 72(3): 481-483.
  • [26] Food Chemical Codex, 1996. National Academy Press, Washington, USA, 283-286 p.
  • [27] Açıkgöz, Ç., Poyraz, Z., 2006. Extraction and characterization of pectin obtained from quince (Cydonia vulgaris pers.). Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 12: 27-34.
  • [28] IFT, 1959. Committee on Pectin Standardization. Final report of the IFT Committee. Food Technol. 13: 496 – 500.
  • [29] Tappi, 1991. Tappi useful method UM256. Water retention value (WRV), Tappi Useful Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta, USA.
  • [30] Pappas, C.S., Malovikova, A., Hromadkova, Z., Tarantilis, P.A., Ebringerova, A., Polissiou, M., 2004. Determination of the degree of esterification of pectinates with decyl and benzyl ester groups by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and curve-fitting deconvolution method. Carbohydrate Polymers 56(4): 465–469.
  • [31] Vriesmann, L.C., Teófilo, R.F., Petkowicz, C.L.O., 2011. Optimization of nitric acid mediated extraction of pectin from cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.) using response surface methodology. Carbohydrate Polymers 84(4): 1230-1236.
  • [32] Virk, B.S., Sogi, D.S., 2004. Extraction and characterization of pectin from apple (Malus pumila Cv Amri) peel waste. International Journal of Food Properties 3(3): 693-703.
  • [33] Yapo, B.M., 2009. Biochemical characteristics and gelling capacity of pectin from yellow passion fruit rind as affected by acid extractant nature. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57(4): 1572-1578.
  • [34] Canteri, M.H., Fertonani, H.C.R., Waszczynskyj, N., Wosiacki, G., 2005. Extraction of pectin from apple pomace. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 48(2): 259-266.
  • [35] Rouse, A.H., Crandall, P.G., 1976. Nitric acid extraction of pectin from citrus peel. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 89: 166-168.
  • [36] Khan, A.A., Butt, M.S., Randhawa, M.A., Karim, R., Sultan, M.T., Ahmed, W., 2014. Extraction and characterization of pectin from grapefruit (Duncan cultivar) and its utilization as gelling agent. International Food Research Journal 21(6): 2195-2199.
  • [37] Kar, F., 1998. Portakal Kabuğu Pektinin Fizikokimyasal Özellikleri ve Pektin Ekstraktının Sabit Basınç Filtrasyonu. Doktora Tezi, Fırat Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Elazığ.
  • [38] Acquistucci, R., Bucci, R., Magri, A.D., Magri, A.R., 1991. Evaluation of the moisture and ash contents in wheat mills by multistep programmed thermogravimetry. Thermochimica Acta 188(1): 51-62.
  • [39] Miyamoto, A., Chang, K.C., 1992. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of pectin from sunflower head residues. J. Food Sci. 57(6): 1439-1443.
  • [40] Johar, D.S., Krishnamurthy, G.V., Bhatia, B.S., 1960. Utilization of apple pomace. Food Science 9: 82–84.
  • [41] Pruthi, J.S. Parekh, C.M. Lal, G., 1961. An integrated process for the recovery of essential oil and pectin from Mandarin orange waste. Food Science 10(11): 372–378.
  • [42] Dang, R.L., 1968. Better utilization of galgal. Indian Food Packer 22(6): 16–24.
  • [43] Yuliarti, O., Goh, K.K.T., Matia-Merino, L., Mawson, J., Brennan, C., 2015. Extraction and characterization of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). Food Chemistry 187: 290–296.
  • [44] Cemeroğlu B. 2004. Meyve ve Sebze İşleme Teknolojisi. Başkent Klişe Matbaacılık, 628s. Ankara.
  • [45] Morris, G.A., Foster, T.J., Harding, S.E., 2000. The effect of the degree of esterifi-cation on the hydrodynamic properties of citrus pectin. Food Hydrocolloids 14(3): 227-235.
  • [46] Fu, J.T., Rao, M.A. 2001. Rheology and structure development during gelation of low-methoxyl pectin gels: the effect of sucrose. Food Hydrocolloids 15(1): 93-100.
  • [47] Girard, M., Turgeon, S.L., Gauthier, S.F., 2002. Interbiopolymer complexing between [beta]-lactoglobulin and low- and high-methylated pectin measured by potentiometric titration and ultrafiltration. Food Hydrocolloids 16(6): 585–591.
  • [48] Torralbo, D.F., Batista, K.A., Di-Medeiros, M.C.B., Fernandes, K.F., 2012. Extraction and partial characterization of Solanum lycocarpum pectin. Food Hydrocolloids 27(2): 378-383.
  • [49] Yapo, B.M., Koffi, K.L., 2013. Extraction and characterization of gelling and emulsifying pectin fractions from cacao pod husk. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 1(4): 46-51.
  • [50] Azad, A.K.M., Ali, M.A., Akter, S., Rahman, J., Ahmed, M., 2014. Isolation and characterization of pectin extracted from lemon pomace during ripening. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 2(2): 30-35.
  • [51] Gama, B., De Farias Silva, C.E., Oliveira Da Silva, L.M., Abud, A.K.S., 2015. Extraction and characterization of pectin from citric waste. Chemical Engineering Transactions 44: 259-264.
  • [52] Mohamed, H. A., Mohamed, B. E. W., 2015. Fractionation and physicochemical properties of pectic substances extracted from grapefruit peels. J. Food Process Technol 6(8): 473.
  • [53] Venzon, S.S., Canteri, M.H.G., Granato, D., Junior, B.D., Maciel, G. M., Stafussa, A.P., Haminiuk, C.W.I., 2015. Physicochemical properties of modified citrus pectins extracted from orange pomace. J Food Sci Technol 52(7): 4102–4112.
  • [54] Mcready, R.M., 1966. Polysaccarides of sugar beet pulp, a review of their chemistry. Journal American Sugar Beet Technology 14(3): 260-270.
  • [55] Johnson, R.M., Breene, W.M., 1988. Pektin gel strength measurement. Food Technology 14: 636-651.
  • [56] Rodriguez, R., Jiménez, R., Fernández-Bolaños, J., Guillén, R., Heredia, A., 2006. Dietary fibre from vegetable products as source of functional ingredients, Trends in Food Science and Technology 17(1): 3-15.
  • [57] Fabio, P.G., Nuno, H.C.S., Trovatti, E., Serafim, L.S., Duarte, M.F., Silvestre, A.J.D., Neto, C.P., Carmen S.R.F., 2013. Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter sacchari using dry olive mill residue. Biomass and Bioenergy 55: 205-211.
  • [58] Nesic, A.R., Trifunovic, S.S., Grujic, A.S., Velickovic, S.J., Antonovic, D.G., 2011. Complexation of amidated pectin with poly(itaconic acid) as a polycarboxylic polymer model compound. Carbohydr. Res. 346(15): 2463-2468.
  • [59] Sivam, A.S., Sun-Waterhouse, D., Perera, C.O., Waterhouse, G.I.N., 2012. Exploring the interactions between blackcurrant polyphenols, pectin and wheat biopolymers in model breads; a FTIR and HPLC investigation. Food Chemistry 131(3): 802-810.
  • [60] Kamnev, A.A., Colina, M., Rodriguez, J., Ptitchkina, N.M., Ignatov, V.V., 1998. Comparative spectroscopic characterization of different pectins and their sources. Food Hydrocolloids 12(3): 263-271.
  • [61] Ferreira, D., Barros, A., Coimbra, M.A., Delgadillo, I., 2001. Use of FT-IR spectroscopy to follow the effect of the processing in cell wall polysaccharide extracts of the sun dried pear. Carbohydrate Polymers 45(2): 175-182.
  • [62] Liu, L., Cao, J., Huang, J., Cai, Y., Yao, J., 2010. Extraction of pectins with different degrees of esterification from mulberry branch bark. Bioresource. Technol. 101(9): 3268-3273.
  • [63] Fajardo, A.R., Lopes, L.C., Pereira, A.G.B., Rubira, A.F., Muniz, E.C., 2012. Polyelectrolyte complexes based on pectin–NH2 and chondroitin sulfate. Carbohydr Polym 87(3): 1950-1955.
  • [64] Aydıncak, K., 2012. Hidrotermal Karbonizasyon Yöntemiyle Gerçek ve Model Biyokütlelerden Karbon Nanoküre Sentezi ve Karakterizasyonu. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • [65] Fisher, T., Hajaligol, M., Waymack, B., Kellogg, D., 2002. Pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of biomass derived materials. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 62(2): 331-349.
  • [66] Mangiacapra, P., Gorras, G., Sorrentino, A., Vittoria, V., 2006. Biodegradable nanocomposites obtained by ball milling of pectin and montmorillonites. Carbohydrate Polymers 64(4): 516-523.
  • [67] Stoll, U.E., Kunzek, H., Dongowski, G., 2007. Thermal analysis of chemically and mechanically modified pectins. Food Hydrocolloids 21(7): 1101-1112.
  • [68] Zhou, H.Y., Zhang, Y.P., Zhang, W.F., Chen, X.G., 2011. Biocompatibility and characteristics of injectable chitosan-based thermosensitive hydrogel for drug delivery. Carbohydrate Polymers 83(4): 1643-1651.
  • [69] Combo, A.M.M., Aguedo, M., Quiévy, N., Danthine, S., Goffin, D., Jacquet, N., Blecker, C., Devaux, J., Paquot, M., 2013. Characterization of sugar beet pectic-derived oligosaccharides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 52: 148-156.
  • [70] Wang, M., Huang, B., Fan, C., Zhao, K., Hu, H., Xu, X., Pan, S., Liu, F., 2016. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 91: 794-803.
  • [71] Fishman, M.L., Coffin, D.R., Onwulata, C.I., Konstance, R.P., 2004. Extrusion of pectin and glycerol with various combinations of orange albedo and starch. Carbohydrate Polymers 57(4): 401-413.
  • [72] Zhongdong, L., Guohua, W., Yunchang, G., Kennedy, J.F., 2006. Image study of pectin extraction from orange skin assisted by microwave. Carbohydrate Polymers 64(4): 548-552.
  • [73] Jiang, Y., Du, Y., Zhu, X., Xiong, H., Woo, M.W., Hu, J., 2012. Physicochemical and comparative properties of pectins extracted from Akebia trifoliata var. australis peel. Carbohydrate Polymers 87(2): 1663-1669.
  • [74] Wang, W., Ma, X., Xu, Y., Cao, Y., Jiang, Z., Ding, T., Ye, X., Liu, D., 2015. Ultrasound-assisted heating extraction of pectin from grapefruit peel: Optimization and comparison with the conventional method. Food Chemistry 178: 106-114.
  • [75] Sharma, R., Ahuja, M., 2011. Thiolated pectin: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation as a mucoadhesive polymer. Carbohydrate Polymers 85(3): 658-663.
  • [76] Mishra, R.K., Datt, M., Banthia, A.K., 2008. Synthesis and characterization of pectin/pVP hydrogel membranes for drug delivery system. AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 9(2): 395-403.
Konular Gıda Bilimleri ve Teknolojisi
Dergi Bölümü Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Yazar: Melih Güzel
E-posta: melihguzel010@hotmail.com

Yazar: Özlem Akpınar
E-posta: ozlem.akpinar@gop.edu.tr

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { akademik-gida304274, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, address = {Sidas Medya Ajans Tanıtım Danışmanlık Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2017}, volume = {15}, pages = {17 - 28}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.304274}, title = {Comparison and Characterization of Pectins Obtained From Citrus Peels}, language = {en}, key = {cite}, author = {Akpınar, Özlem and Güzel, Melih} } @araştırma makalesi { akademik-gida304274, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, address = {Sidas Medya Ajans Tanıtım Danışmanlık Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2017}, volume = {15}, pages = {17 - 28}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.304274}, title = {Turunçgil Kabuklarından Elde Edilen Pektinlerin Karakterizasyonu ve Karşılaştırılması}, language = {tr}, key = {cite}, author = {Akpınar, Özlem and Güzel, Melih} }
APA Güzel, M , Akpınar, Ö . (2017). Comparison and Characterization of Pectins Obtained From Citrus Peels. Akademik Gıda, 15 (1), 17-28. DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.304274
MLA Güzel, M , Akpınar, Ö . "Comparison and Characterization of Pectins Obtained From Citrus Peels". Akademik Gıda 15 (2017): 17-28 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/akademik-gida/issue/28716/304274>
Chicago Güzel, M , Akpınar, Ö . "Comparison and Characterization of Pectins Obtained From Citrus Peels". Akademik Gıda 15 (2017): 17-28
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Turunçgil Kabuklarından Elde Edilen Pektinlerin Karakterizasyonu ve Karşılaştırılması AU - Melih Güzel , Özlem Akpınar Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.304274 DO - 10.24323/akademik-gida.304274 T2 - Akademik Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 17 EP - 28 VL - 15 IS - 1 SN - 1304-7582-2148-015X M3 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.304274 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.304274 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Gıda Turunçgil Kabuklarından Elde Edilen Pektinlerin Karakterizasyonu ve Karşılaştırılması %A Melih Güzel , Özlem Akpınar %T Turunçgil Kabuklarından Elde Edilen Pektinlerin Karakterizasyonu ve Karşılaştırılması %D 2017 %J Akademik Gıda %P 1304-7582-2148-015X %V 15 %N 1 %R doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.304274 %U 10.24323/akademik-gida.304274