Yıl 2018, Cilt 16, Sayı 1, Sayfalar 109 - 119 2018-04-23

Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi
Phytases: Their Effects on Environment, Nutritional and Biotechnological Importance

Derya Berikten [1] , Merih Kıvanç [2]

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Hayvanlar alemi için önemli besin kaynaklarından olan tahıllarda, baklagillerde ve yağlı tohumlarda fosfatın temel depo formu fitik asittir. Basit mideli hayvanlar ve insanlar gastrointestinal fitaz enziminden yoksun oldukları için fitatı tam olarak parçalayamaz ve fitat fosfatından yararlanamazlar. Ayrıca, fitik asit beslenme karşıtı bir etki de göstermektedir, çünkü bazı metal iyonları ve proteinlerle fizyolojik pH değerlerinde çözünmeyen kompleksler oluşturarak bunların biyolojik kullanımını engellemektedir. Beslenme karşıtı etkisi, yapısındaki fosforun kullanılamayıp atılmasıyla oluşan çevresel kirlilik ve gıdalara ekstra fosfor ekleme gereksinimini ortaya çıkartması sebebiyle fitik asitin fitaz enzimleri tarafından defosforilasyonu oldukça önemlidir. Fitazlar endüstriyel olarak özellikle yem ve gıda sanayi olmak üzere çok çeşitli alanlarda kullanıma sahiptirler. Farklı kaynaklardan elde edilebilen fitaz enzimleri içerisinde endüstriyel ve biyoteknolojik uygulamalar için en uygun olanları mikrobiyal fitazlardır. Termofilik fungusların ürettiği fitazlar, geniş pH aralığında aktif olma, yüksek spesifik aktivite ve özellikle endüstriyel proseslerde uygulanan yüksek sıcaklıklarda aktivitesini kaybetmemesini sağlayan termostabilite gibi özelliklere sahiptirler. Bu yüzden mikrobiyal fitazlar arasında oldukça önemli bir yere sahiptirler. Bu derlemede, fitaz enziminin özellikleri, beslenme, insan sağlığı, çevresel açıdan önemi ve fitaz kaynakları, kullanıldığı alanlar ele alınmıştır.

Phytic acid is the primary storage form of phosphate in cereals, legumes and oilseeds, which are the principal components of animal feeds. Because of the lack of gastrointestinal phytase enzyme, monogastric animals and human are unable to digest phytate completely and do not benefit the phosphate of phytates. Furthermore, phytic acid shows anti-nutritive effect because it forms non-soluble complexes with some metal ions and proteins at physiologic pH values that prevent their bioavailability. Because of the anti-nutritive effect, the need for extra phosphorus addition to feeds and formation of environmental pollution due to excretion of phosphorus in its structure that cannot be used, de-phosphorulation of phytic acid by phytase enzyme is very important. Industrially, phytases have to be used in various fields especially in feed and food industries. Among phytase enzymes obtained from different sources, microbial phytases are the most appropriate ones for industrial and biotechnological applications. Phytases produced by thermophilic fungi have several features such as activity at a wide pH range, high specific activity and especially thermostability at high temperatures applied in industrial processes. So they have very important place among microbial phytases. In this review, properties of phytase enzyme, precautions for human nutrition and health and environment, sources and uses of phytases are discussed.

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Orcid: 0000-0002-8672-4813
Yazar: Derya Berikten (Sorumlu Yazar)
E-posta: derya.berikten@gmail.com

Orcid: 0000-0002-8647-3428
Yazar: Merih Kıvanç
E-posta: derya.berikten@gmail.com

Bibtex @derleme { akademik-gida417903, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, address = {Sidas Medya Ajans Tanıtım Danışmanlık Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2018}, volume = {16}, pages = {109 - 119}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.417903}, title = {Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi}, key = {cite}, author = {Kıvanç, Merih and Berikten, Derya} }
APA Berikten, D , Kıvanç, M . (2018). Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi. Akademik Gıda, 16 (1), 109-119. DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.417903
MLA Berikten, D , Kıvanç, M . "Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi". Akademik Gıda 16 (2018): 109-119 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/akademik-gida/issue/36746/417903>
Chicago Berikten, D , Kıvanç, M . "Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi". Akademik Gıda 16 (2018): 109-119
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi AU - Derya Berikten , Merih Kıvanç Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.417903 DO - 10.24323/akademik-gida.417903 T2 - Akademik Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 109 EP - 119 VL - 16 IS - 1 SN - 1304-7582-2148-015X M3 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.417903 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.417903 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Gıda Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi %A Derya Berikten , Merih Kıvanç %T Fitazlar: Çevreye Etkisi, Beslenme ve Biyoteknolojideki Önemi %D 2018 %J Akademik Gıda %P 1304-7582-2148-015X %V 16 %N 1 %R doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.417903 %U 10.24323/akademik-gida.417903