Yıl 2017, Cilt 19, Sayı 2, Sayfalar 143 - 154 2017-12-29

FAIR TRADE AS AN ETHICAL CONSUMPTION TOOL
BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET

Fuat EROL [1]

78 215

Technological and economic developments that have gained momentum with globalization have spread to individuals' lives as in many other areas of life and have played an active role in the formation of new social structures. These structural transformations of societies have also affected consumers who are the part of society and has led to the emergence of new consumer profiles. Today's consumer has a high level of consciousness and ethical values on the environmental and social issues. With these characteristics, consumers have contributed to the spread of concepts such as social responsibility, ethical consumption, ethical business, consumer-citizen and fair trade, and they have helped to make a fairer and more sustainable life possible for all segments of society. Thus, this study aimed to discuss the fair-trade practices in the context of ethical consumption and to examine the current state of the fair-trade movement through the data of the worldwide activities between 2011 and 2015. The results obtained have revealed that the fair-trade movement is following an upward trend in some points such as sales volume, the number of countries in operation and the amount of premium distributed. Nevertheless, the present situation has not yet reached the adequate level of social justice, and it is still necessary to take some new steps at this point. 

Küreselleşmeyle birlikte ivme kazanan teknolojik ve ekonomik gelişmeler, hayata dair pek çok alana olduğu gibi bireylerin yaşantılarına da sirayet etmekte ve yeni toplumsal yapıların oluşmasında etkin bir rol oynamaktadır. Toplumlara ilişkin bu yapısal dönüşümler, yine toplumun birer parçası olan tüketicileri de etkilemekte; bu durum ise yeni tüketici profillerinin ortaya çıkmasına sebep olmaktadır. Genel olarak bilinç düzeyi yüksek, etik değerlere bağlı, çevresel ve toplumsal meselelere duyarlı bir yapıya sahip olan günümüz tüketicisi bu özellikleriyle; sosyal sorumluluk, etik tüketim, etik ticaret, tüketici vatandaş ve adil ticaret gibi kavramların yaygınlık kazanmasına katkı sağlamakta, toplumun tüm kesimleri için daha adil ve sürdürülebilir bir yaşamın mümkün kılınmasına yardımcı olmaktadır. Nitekim bu çalışmayla da etik tüketim bağlamında adil ticaret uygulamalarının ele alınması ve adil ticaret hareketinin 2011-2015 yılları arasında dünya genelindeki faaliyetlerinin veriler aracılığıyla incelenerek mevcut durumun ortaya konulması amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışmadan ulaşılan sonuçlar, adil ticaret hareketinin satış hacmi, faaliyet gösterilen ülke sayısı, dağıtılan prim tutarı gibi noktalarda artış trendi izlediğini; buna karşın mevcut durumun sosyal adaletin temini hususunda henüz yeterli seviyeye ulaşamadığını, bu noktada bir takım yeni adımların atılması gerekliliğini ortaya koymaktadır. 

  • Barrientos, S. 2000. Globalisation and Ethical Trade: Assessing the Implications for Development, Journal of International Development, vol. 12, 559-570.
  • Bedford, T. 1999. Ethical Consumerism: Everyday Negotiations in the Construction of An Ethical Self, University College London, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis.
  • Bird, K. ve Hughes, D. R. 1997. Ethical Consumerism: The Case of “Fairly-Traded” Coffee, Business Ethics: A European Review, 6 (3), 159-167.
  • Bondy, T. ve Talwar, V. 2011. Through Thick and Thin: How Fair Trade Consumers Have Reacted to the Global Economic Recession, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 101, 365-383.
  • Castaldo, S., Perrini, F., Misani, N. ve Tencati, A. 2009. The Missing Link Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Consumer Trust: The Case of Fair Trade Products, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 84, 1-15.
  • Cooper-Martin, E. ve Holbrook, M. B. 1993. Ethical Consumption Experiences and Ethical Space, Advances in Consumer Research, 20 (1), 113-118.
  • Crane, A. ve Matten, D. 2010. Business Ethics, 3. ed, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  • Darian, J. C., Tucci, L., Newman, C. M. ve Naylor, L. 2015. An Analysis of Consumer Motivations For Purchasing Fair Trade Coffee, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol. 27, 318-327.
  • Doane, D. 2001. Taking Flight: The Rapid Growth Of Ethical Consumerism, London: New Economic Foundation.
  • Doherty, B., Smith, A. ve Parker, S. 2015. Fair Trade Market Creation and Marketing in the Global South, Geoforum, vol. 67, 158-171.
  • EFTA. 1995. Fair Trade Year Book, Belgium: European Fair Trade Association.
  • EFTA. 2001. Fair Trade in Europe 2001: Facts and Figures On The Fair Trade Sector in 18 European Countries, Research Report for the European Fair Trade Association, January, JB Maastricht The Netherlands.
  • Erciş, A. ve Türk, B. 2016. Etik Çerçevesinde Tüketim, Tüketici ve Çevre: Ekolojik Okuryazarlığın Moderatör Rolü, Çukurova Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 20 (2), 1-24.
  • Erol, F. 2017. Dijital Dünyanın Sosyal Uçurumları Kapamadaki Rolü: Sosyal Medya ve Sosyal Pazarlama İlişkisi Üzerine Bir İnceleme, GÜSBEED, Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Elektronik Dergisi, 8 (21), 33-48.
  • Ethical Consumer. 2003. Why Buy Ethically? An Introduction to the Philosophy Behind Ethical Purchasing, www.ethicalconsumer.org. Erişim Tarihi: 30.03.2017.
  • Ethical Consumer. 2016. Ethical Consumer Market Reports 2016, http://www.ethicalconsumer.org/portals /0/downloads/ethical%20consumer%20markets%20report%202016.pdf. Erişim Tarihi: 01.04.2017.
  • Ethical Consumerism Report. 2011. Ethical Consumerism Report, http://www.ethicalconsumer.org/ portals/0/downloads/ethical-consumerism-report-2011-1.pdf. Erişim Tarihi: 16.12.2017.
  • Ethicalconsumer.org. http://www.ethicalconsumer.org/shoppingethically/whybuyethical.aspx, Erişim Tarihi: 31.03.2017.
  • European Commission. 2017. DG Trade Statistical Guide, http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2013/may /tradoc_151348.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 11.06.2017.
  • Fairtrade International. 2012. For Producers, With Producers, Annual Report 2011-2012, https://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/2009/resources/2011-12_AnnualReport_ web_version_small_FairtradeInternational.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 17.04.2017.
  • Fairtrade International. 2013. Unlocking the Power, Annual Report 2012-2013, https://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/2009/resources/2012-13_AnnualReport_FairtradeIntl_web.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 17.04.2017.
  • Fairtrade International. 2014. Strong Producers, Strong Future, Annual Report 2013-2014, https://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/2009/resources/2013-14_AnnualReport_ FairtradeIntl_web.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 17.04.2017.
  • Fairtrade International. 2015. Global Change, Local Leadership, Annual Report 2014-2015, https://annualreport14-15.fairtrade.net/en/, Erişim Tarihi: 17.04.2017.
  • Fairtrade International. 2016. Driving Sales, Deepening Impact, Annual Report 2015-2016, https://annualreport15-16.fairtrade.net/en/, Erişim Tarihi: 17.04.2017.
  • Harrison, R., Newholm, T. ve Shaw, D. 2005. The Ethical Consumer, London: Sage Publication.
  • Holliman, J. 1974. Consumer’s Guide to the Protection of the Environment, 2. Baskı, London: Pan/Ballantine.
  • Irish Congress of Trade Unions. 2009. Ethical Consumerism, a Guide For Trade Unions, http://www.ictu.ie/download/pdf/ethical_consumer_guide_ictu.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 31.03.2017.
  • Jaffee, D., Kloppenburg, J.R. Jr. ve Monroy, M. B. 2004. Bringing the ‘Moral Change’ Home: Fair Trade Within The North and Within The South, Rural Sociology, 69 (2), 169-196.
  • Kapusuz, S. ve Kimzan, H. S. 2016. Adil Ticaret Bilgisi, Adil Ticaret Primi Ödeme İstekliliği ve Adil Ticaret Bağlılığı İlişkisinde Adil Ticarete Duyulan Güvenin Rolü: Türkiye Örneği, İş Ahlâkı Dergisi, 9 (1), 49-89.
  • Leclair, M. S. 2002. Fighting the Tide: Alternative Trade Organizations in the Era Of Global Free Trade, World Development, 30 (6), 949-958.
  • Lekabis, E. J. 2014. Icts and Ethical Consumption: The Political and Market Futures of Fair Trade, Futures, vol. 62, 164-172.
  • Low, W. ve Davenport, E. 2005. Has The Medium (Roast) Become the Message? The Ethics of Marketing Fair Trade in the Mainstream, International Marketing Review, 22 (5), 494-511.
  • Lyon, S. 2006. Evaluating Fair Trade Consumption: Politics, Defetishization and Producer Participation, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30 (5), 452-464.
  • Mason, C. ve Doherty, B. 2015. A Fair Trade-Off? Paradoxes in the Governance of Fair-Trade Social Enterprises, Springer Science and Business Media Dordrecht.
  • Modelo, M. 2014. The Paradox of Fair Trade, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Winter, 40-45.
  • Moore, G. 2004. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, Journal of Business Ethics, 53 (1), 73-86.
  • Neo, H. 2016. Ethical Consumption, Meaningful Substitution and the Challenges of Vegetarianism Advocacy, The Geographical Journal, 182 (2), 201-212.
  • Nicholls, A. 2010. Fair Trade: Towards an Economics of Virtue, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 92, 241-255.
  • Nicholls, A. J. 2002. Strategic Options in Fair Trade Retailing, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30 (1), 6-17.
  • Odabaşı, Y. 2008. Adil Ticaret Uygulamaları ve Pazarlama İlişkisi, http://yavuzodabasi.blogspot.com.tr/ 2008/02/adil-ticaret-uygulamalar-ve-pazarlama.html, Erişim Tarihi: 03.04.2017.
  • Odabaşı, Y. 2014. Postmodern Pazarlama, 4. Baskı, İstanbul: Media Cat.
  • Pelsmacker, P. D. ve Janssens, W. 2007. A Model For Fair Trade Buying Behaviour: The Role of Perceived Quantity and Quality of İnformation and of Product-Spesific Attitudes, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 75, 361-380.
  • Redfern, A. ve Snedker, P. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement, SEED Working Paper, vol. 30, 1–61, Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office.
  • Shaw, D., Newholm, T. ve Dickinson, R. 2006. Consumption As Voting: An Exploration of Consumer Empowerment, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 40(9/10), 1049-1067.
  • Smith, A. 1790. The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 6. ed, Brazil: Metalibri.
  • Smith, S. ve Barrientos, S. 2005. Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?, Sustainable Development, 13 (3), 190-198.
  • Stevens, C. A. 2008. Promoting Ethical Consumption Behavior Through Spaces Constructed By Collective Actions and Pre-Existing Values: How Fairtrade Towns Establish Pathways For Participation, The Graduate School of the University of Wyoming Department of International Studies, Unpublished Master Thesis.
  • Strong, C. 1996. Features Contributing to the Growth of Ethical Consumerism-A Preliminary İnvestigation, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 14 (5), 5-13.
  • Sultana, A., Nagasuvarchala, Ch. ve Pranathi, K. 2016. A Study on Ethics and Social Responsibility in Marketing, International Journal of Innovative Research & Development, 2 (5), 78-82.
  • Süygün, M. S. 2015. Küresel İşletmelerde Etik Bir Yaklaşım: Adil Ticaret, Cag University Journal of Social Sciences, 12 (2), 48-63.
  • Şen Taşbaşı, A. 2015. Uluslararası Ticaretin Adaletini Sorgulamak: Adil Ticaret Sistemi, Çalışma Koşullarına Etkisi ve Fındık İşçileri İçin Adalet Arayışı, İş, Güç Endüstri İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 17 (3), 72-93.
  • UNCTAD. 2014. The Least Developed Countries Report, http://unctad.org/en/publicationslibrary/ldc2014_ en.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.02.2016.
  • UNDP. 2007. 'Adil Ticaret' UNDP'nin Girişimiyle Türkiye'de Başlıyor, http://www.tr.undp.org/content/ turkey/tr/home/presscenter/news-from-new-horizons/2006/07/undp-brings-fair-trade-to-turkey.html, Erişim Tarihi: 21.04.2017.
  • Uusitalo, O. ve Oksanen, R. M. 2004. Ethical Consumerism: A View From Finland, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 28 (3), 214-221.
  • Wilkinson, J. 2007. Fair Trade: Dynamic and Dilemmas Of A Market Oriented Global Social Movement, Journal Consumer Policy, vol. 30, 219-239.
  • World Bank. 2016. Taking On Inequality, https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/ 10986/25078/9781464809583.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 11.06.2017.
  • World Fair Trade Organization. 2010. 10 Standards Of Fair Trade, www.wfto.com/index.php?option¼com_ content&task¼view&id¼2&Itemid¼14, Erişim Tarihi: 19.02.2016.
  • World Fair Trade Organization. 2017. http://wfto.com/fair-trade/definition-fair-trade, Erişim Tarihi: 15.04.2017.
Konular Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler
Dergi Bölümü Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Fuat EROL (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey Üniversitesi
Ülke: Turkey


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { akuiibfd373123, journal = {Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1302-1966}, address = {Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {19}, pages = {143 - 154}, doi = {}, title = {BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET}, key = {cite}, author = {EROL, Fuat} }
APA EROL, F . (2017). BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET. Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 19 (2), 143-154. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/akuiibfd/issue/33632/373123
MLA EROL, F . "BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET". Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 19 (2017): 143-154 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/akuiibfd/issue/33632/373123>
Chicago EROL, F . "BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET". Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 19 (2017): 143-154
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET AU - Fuat EROL Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 143 EP - 154 VL - 19 IS - 2 SN - 1302-1966- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET %A Fuat EROL %T BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET %D 2017 %J Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1302-1966- %V 19 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD EROL, Fuat . "BİR ETİK TÜKETİM ARACI OLARAK ADİL TİCARET". Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 2 (Aralık 2017): 143-154.