Cilt 12, Sayı 3, Sayfalar 47 - 65 2015-11-07

Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts #25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz

Elizabeth Bishop [1]

96 136

Citizens of the Arab Middle East have taken part in a wave of democracy movements; in Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia at least, their protests have resulted in regime change. Drawing on Michel Foucault's personal experiences in one of these countries, and informed by his concept of 'biopolitics,' this essay connects Egyptians' current liberation struggle with their earlier revolution in 1952, in order to compare these experiences with Iraqis' 1958 Tammuz revolution. Were new social media as important, as the level of funding dedicated to the military And what is the role of diplomacy in a revolutionary moment
Arab Spring, Coup, Egypt, Iraq, new social media, radio, revolution
  • “$5 Million Suit Against Iraq,” Daily Iowan, 21 February 1959.
  • “’Virginity tests’ latest crack in Egypt’s reform,” CBS News, 31 May 2011.
  • “Amman Announces 2 Ministers of Arab Union were Slain in Bagdad Uprising,” New York Times, 23 July 19 “Bagdad Reports Americans Slain,” New York Times, 16 July 1958.
  • “Brigadier Qassem Speaks of his Aims,” London Times, 28 July 1958.
  • “Faisal Shot First Day, Iranian Envoy Says,” Washington Post, 17 July 1958.
  • “Government Finds to Trace of Robert Abcock,” Daily Iowan, 26 July 1959.
  • “How Mob Slew Americans Told,” Washington Post, 22 July 1958.
  • “Hussein Takes Over as Head of Two-Nation Arab Union,” New York Times, 15 July 1958.
  • “Iraq Mob Beats Former Iowa Citian to Death,” Daily Iowan, 22 July 1958.
  • “Iraq Pledges on Oil for West,” London Times, 23 July 1958.
  • “Iraq Prime Minister Talks of his Coup,” London Times, 26 July 1958.
  • “Iraq, After the Blood Bath,” Time, 4 August 1958.
  • “Iraq’s London Funds Freed,” London Times, 29 July 1958.
  • “Iraqi Soldiers Ignored Orders,” New York Times, 22 July 1958.
  • “Jordanian Officers Return from Iraq,” New York Times, 25 July 1958.
  • “King Overthrown,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 15 July 1958.
  • “King Voices Confidence,” New York Times, 15 July 1958.
  • “Men and Motives of the Iraq Revolt,” London Times, 16 July 1958.
  • “One Casualty in Embassy Staff,” London Times, 15 July 1958.
  • “Robert W. Alcock,” Caltech, Engineering & Science, 187, 2, 1958.
  • “Suez squatters referred to military trials,” Daily News Egypt, 6 April 2013.
  • “The Americans Reported Killed by Bagdad Mob,” Chicago Tribune, 15 July 1958.
  • “The Business Day,” Christian Science Monitor, 14 July 1958.
  • “U.S. Reporter Tours Bagdad with Rebels,” Chicago Tribune, 21 July 1958.
  • “Voice of Free Iraq,” British Consulate General, Basra; Monthly Summary, 1 to 31 May 1953, Records of Iraq.
  • “Withdrawal Order Reported,” New York Times, 15 July 1958.
  • Abdalla, Amr. “US rights groups slam Egypt's military for Maspero violence,” Egypt Independent, 12 October 2011.
  • Althani, Mohamed. The Arab Spring and the Gulf States : Time to Embrace Change . London: Profile Books, 2012.
  • Amnesty International. “Egyptian Women Protesters Forced To Take ‘Virginity Tests,’” 23 March 2011.
  • Aytes, Ayhan. “Mechanical Turk and Neoliberal States of Exception.” In TreborScholz, ed. Digital Labour : The Internet as Playground and Factory . London: Routledge, 2013.
  • Baldwin, Hanson. “The Mideast; Changing, Yet Unchanged.” New York Times, 13 January, 1956.
  • Bernier, Nathan. “Don't Confuse Egypt with Tunisia Says UT Middle East Expert.” KUT News, 28 January 2011.
  • Birdwood, Christopher Bromhead. Nuri As-Said.A study in Arab leadership. London: Cassell, 1959.
  • Campbell, Dennis.. Egypt Unshackled - Using Social Media to @#: ) the System Carmarthenshire, Wales: Llyfrau Cambria/Cambria Books, 2011.
  • Capan, Neil. Futile Diplomacy utOperation Alpha and the Failure of Anglo-American Coercive Diplomacy in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1954-1956 . New York: Psychology Press, 1997.
  • Caractacus. Revolution in Iraq: An Essay in Comparative Public Opinion. London, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 19 Carter, Stan. “How Iraq Mob Killed Guests of Plush Hotel,” Chicago Tribune, 22 July 1958.
  • Central Intelligence Agency, “Iraq, National Intelligence Survey; section 42, Characteristics of the People.” January 1951.
  • Cohen, Ed. A Body Worth Defending : Immunity, Biopolitics, and the Apotheosis of the Modern Body, 2009 .
  • Congressional Record, 31 July 1958.
  • Davis, Eric.. Memories of State: Politics, History and Collective Identity in Modern Iraq. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.
  • De Gaury, Gerald.. Three Kings in Baghdad, 1921-1958. London: Hutchinson, 1961.
  • DeLong, Michael. Inside CentCom: The Unvarnished Truth About The Wars In Afghanistan And Iraq. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2004.
  • Dulles, Allen. The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World . Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot, 2008.
  • Eko, Lyombe. New Media, Old Regimes: Case Studies in Comparative Communication Law and Policy, 20 Ellis, Harry. Challenge in the Middle East; Communist Influence and American Policy. New York: Ronald Press, 1960.
  • Esposito, Roberto. 2008. Bíos : Biopolitics and Philosophy . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • F. F. Fedorov, “Turektskopakistanskii I turetsko-irakskiidogovory— orudiiaagressivnoipolitikisshanablizhnem I srednemvostoke,” Sovetskoegosudarstvo I pravo, no. 2 (1954).
  • Facts on file yearbook , 14. 1955.
  • Fahmy, Mohamed Fadel. 2012. “Egyptian court acquits doctor accused of virginity tests,” CNN, 11 March.
  • Fantz, Ashley. “Syria death toll probably at 70,000, U.N. human rights official says,” CNN, 12 February 20 FBIS, “Armed Forces Support,” 16 July 1958.
  • FBIS, “Eyewitness Recounts Coup Brutalities,” Amman, in Arabic to Jordan, 23 July 1958.
  • FBIS, “Iraq to sign defense pact with Turkey,” “joint communiqué,” 13 January 1954.
  • FBIS, “Peking Reportage of Situation in Iraq,” Communist China, International Affairs 15 July 1958.
  • FBIS, 1958-07-14, CAIRO, DAMASCUS REPORT IRAQ COUP D'ETAT, DAILY REPORT. Foreign
  • Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-135 on 1958-07-14.
  • FBIS, Baghdad home service - 1958-07-18, Regime Tells U.N. Events Purely Internal, DAILY REPORT.
  • Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-139 on 1958-07-18.
  • FBIS, Baghdad, Iraqi Home Service - 1958-07-14, IRAQ ASKS POSTPONEMENT OF U.N. MEETING,
  • DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15.
  • FBIS, Baghdad, Iraqi Home Service - 1958-07-14, IRAQ ASKS POSTPONEMENT OF U.N. MEETING,
  • DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15.
  • FBIS, Baghdad, Iraqi Home Service - 1958-07-15, IRAQ ANNOUNCES WITHDRAWAL FROM
  • UNION, DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-137 on 1958-07-16.
  • FBIS, Baghdad, Iraqi Home Service - 1958-07-15, Oilfield Control, DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio
  • Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-137 on 1958-07-16.
  • FBIS, Berlin, ADN - 1958-07-14, Iranian Delegate's Remarks, DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio
  • Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15.
  • FBIS, Berlin, Deutschlandsender - 1958-07-14, WEST MAY SEND JORDAN KING AGAINST IRAQ,
  • DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15.
  • FBIS, Cairo, Egyptian Home Service - 1958-07-14, BAKR HAILS IRAQI PEOPLE'S REVOLUTION,
  • DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15.
  • FBIS, Cairo, Egyptian Home Service - 1958-07-14, UAR GOVERNMENT RECOGNIZES IRAQ
  • REPUBLIC, DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15.
  • FBIS, Damascus - 1958-07-14, JORDANIANS JUBILANT OVER IRAQ UPRISING, DAILY
  • REPORT.Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15.
  • FBIS, Moscow, TASS - 1958-07-14, Faysal Arrested, DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS- FRB-58-135 on 1958-07-14.
  • FBIS, Moscow, TASS, Radioteletype - 1958-07-14, Triumvirate Formed, DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio
  • Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-135 on 1958-07-14.
  • FBIS, Ramallah - 1958-07-14, JORDAN SAYS IRAQI REBELS HOLD LITTLE, DAILY REPORT.
  • Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-136 on 1958-07-15
  • FBIS, Ramallah - 1958-07-15, HUSAYN CONFIDENT IN UNION RESTORATION, DAILY REPORT.
  • Foreign Radio Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-137 on 1958-07-16
  • FBIS, SYRIAN SABOTAGE TERMED AID FOR ENEMY, Bagdad, Iraqi Home Service - 14 November 19 FBIS.Baghdad, Iraqi Home Service - 1958-07-14, First Proclamation.DAILY REPORT. Foreign Radio
  • Broadcasts, FBIS-FRB-58-135 on 1958-07-14
  • Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958-1960, volume XII, Near East Region; Iraq, Iran, Arabian Peninsula, document 112.
  • Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 1975.
  • Freelon, Deen.. “The MENA protests on Twitter: some empirical data,” 19 May 2011 .dfreelon.org.
  • Fukuyama, Francis. The Soviet Union and Iraq Since 1968, United States Air Force N-1524-AF. July 1980.
  • Gallman, WaldemarJ..Iraq under General Nuri; my recollections of Nuri al Said, 1954-1958. Baltimore:
  • Johns Hopkins Press, 1964
  • Gelvin, James. The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 20 Gurevitch, Michael. Stephen Coleman and Jay Blumler, “Communication—Old and New Media Relationships,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625. September, 2009.
  • Haddad, George. Revolutions and Military Rule in the Middle East: The Arab states pt. I: Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan . [Berlin]: R. Speller, 1965 .
  • Hailey, Foster. “How Revolution Occurred in Iraq,” New York Times. 27 July 1958.
  • Hangen, Wells. “Turk-Iraqi Pact Will Assist NATO,” New York Times. 27 March, 1955.
  • Harris, George L. et al. Iraq: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture. New Haven: HRAF Publishers, 1958.
  • Hawyard, Henry S. “London Sees Coup as Mideast Loss: Hasty Talks Held Mayor Oil Producer,” Christian Science Monitor, 14 July, 1958.
  • Howard, Philip N. and Muzammil M. Hussain.Democracy's Fourth Wave?Digital Media and the Arab Spring. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
  • Human Rights Watch. “Egypt Military Trials Usurp Justice System,” 29 April, 2011.
  • Human Rights Watch.“Egypt,” Annual Report, 2012.
  • Ibrahim, Ekram. “Justice Denied: Egypt’s Maspero Massacre one year on,” Ahram Online, 9 October, 20 Ingram, Robert L. The Bechtel Story: 40 Years of Accomplishment in Engineering and Construction. San Francisco, 1968.
  • Ionides, Michael George. Divide and lose. The Arab revolt of 1955-1958. Geoffrey Bles: London, 1960.
  • Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Jankowski, James. Nasser's Egypt, Arab Nationalism and the United Arab Republic . Boulder: Lynne Rienner Press, 2002.
  • Jessop, Bob (2006) From micro-powers to ... work on statehood, state formation, statecraft and state power.
  • Political Geography, 26 (1). Kerr, Malcolm. The Arab Cold War: GamalAbd al-Nasir and His Rivals, 1958–1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.
  • Khadduri, Majid. “The Emergence of Modern Iraq,” Sources of Domestic and Foreign Policy in Iraq, Z. Michael Szaz, ed. Washington DC: American Foreign Policy Institute, 1986.
  • Kunz, Diana. The Economic Diplomacy of the Suez Crisis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.
  • Kunz, Diane. ”The Emergence of the United States as a Middle Eastern Power, 1956-1958,” in A
  • Revolutionary Year : The Middle East in 1958 , William Roger Louis, Roger Owen, eds. London: IB Tauris, 200
  • Laub, Karin. “Libya: Estimated 30,000 Died In War; 4,000 Still Missing,” Associated Press, 8 September 20 Lemke, Thomas. Biopolitics : An Advanced Introduction . New York: New York University Press, 2011.
  • Letter from Lecturer in Anesthetics, London, to Foreign Office, London (7 August 1958) [FO 371/134202].Records of Iraq, 1914-1966, volume 12 (2001).
  • Louis, William Roger. Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization, 200 Macey, David. Michel Foucault. Edinburgh, Scotland: Reaktion Books, 2004.
  • Marashi, Ibrahim, and Sammy Salama.Iraq's armed forces: an analytical history. London: Routledge, 2008.
  • McCartner, Laton. Friends In High Places: The Bechtel Story: The Most Secret Corporation and How It Engineered the World. New York: Random House Publishing Group, 1989.
  • Medzadourian, Kevork. My 41 Years in Iraq. Mustang, OK: Tate Publishing & Enterprises, 2006.
  • Miller, Jim. The Passion of Michel Foucault. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
  • Morris, Jan..The Hashemite Kings. London: Faber and Faber, 1959.
  • Pappé, Ilan. The making of the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1947-1951. London: Tauris, 1992.
  • Pollock, David. The “Arab Street?”Public Opinion in the Arab World.Washington DC, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1992.
  • Polyzoides. “No Big Surprises in Iraq Seizure,” Los Angeles Times, 15 July 1958.
  • Records of Iraq, 1914-1966, C. H. Johnston, Amman, to Foreign Office, London (28 July 1958) [FO 371/134201].Volume 12 (2001).
  • Romero, Juan. The Iraqi Revolution of 1958: A Revolutionary Quest for Unity and Security. Washington
  • DC: University Press of America, 2010.
  • Sabry, Mohammad.“New Egypt? 7,000 civilians jailed since Mubarak fell,” Associated Press, 21 July 2011.
  • Sharabi, H. B. Government and Politics of the Middle East in the Twentieth Century. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1962.
  • Shazly, Saad. The Arab Military Option. San Francisco: American Mideast Research, 1986.
  • Shema, Sadiq. “A Surviver Gives Details of Savagery,” Life, 4 August 1958.
  • Sinderson, Harry. Ten Thousand and One Nights: Memories of Iraq's Sherifian Dynasty. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1973.
  • Sluglett, Marion, and Peter Sluglett. Iraq since 1958: from revolution to dictatorship. London: KPI, 1987.
  • Sorby, Karol.“The 1952 Uprising in Iraq and the Regent’s Role in its Crushing; Iraq from al-Wathba to al- intifada: 1949-1952,” Asian and African Studies 12, 2 (2003).
  • St. Clair, Jeffrey. “’More Powerful Than the U.S. Army,’ Straight to Bechtel,” Counterpunch, 9 May 2005.
  • Tadros, Sherine. “Egypt’s Military’s Economic Empire,” Aljazeera, 15 February, 2012. The Listener, 60. 1958.
  • Trew, Bel. “Summoned Activist Rejects Legitimacy of investigation into Brotherhood clashes,” Ahram Online, 26 March 2013.
  • United Nations Archives and Records Management, Press release ORG/373; 6 August 1958.
  • United Nations Archives and Records Management, Press release S/4060 21 July 1958.
  • United Nations Archives and Records Management, Press release SG/705 18 July 1958.
  • United Nations Archives and Records Management, Press release SG/702; 15 July 1958.
  • United Nations Security Council. S/4080, 6 August 1958.
  • Waldo Drake, "Europe Depicts Iraq Coup as Bagdad Pact Ruination," Los Angeles Times (15 July 1958).
  • Watson, Ivan and Mohamed FadelFahmy. “Egypt's revolutionaries say abusive treatment persists,” CNN, 25 March 2011.
  • West-Pavlov, Russell. Space in Theory: Kristeva, Foucault, Deleuze. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009.
  • Wheeler, Keith. “First Full Story of a Coup in Iraq that set off world crisis,” Life, 18 August 1958.
Birincil Dil en
Konular
Dergi Bölümü Articles
Yazarlar

Yazar: Elizabeth Bishop
E-posta:

Bibtex @ { alternatives20878, journal = {Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations}, issn = {2146-0809}, address = {Yalova Üniversitesi}, year = {2015}, volume = {12}, pages = {47 - 65}, doi = {}, title = {Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts \#25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz}, language = {en}, key = {cite}, author = {Bishop, Elizabeth} }
APA Bishop, E . (2015). Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts #25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz. Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations, 12 (3), 47-65. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/alternatives/issue/1691/20878
MLA Bishop, E . "Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts #25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz". Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations 12 (2015): 47-65 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/alternatives/issue/1691/20878>
Chicago Bishop, E . "Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts #25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz". Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations 12 (2015): 47-65
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts #25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz AU - Elizabeth Bishop Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 47 EP - 65 VL - 12 IS - 3 SN - 2146-0809-1303-5525 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts #25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz %A Elizabeth Bishop %T Blown Away by the Winds Like Ashes: Biopower in Egypts #25 Jan and Iraqs 14 Tammuz %D 2015 %J Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations %P 2146-0809-1303-5525 %V 12 %N 3 %R %U