Yıl 2005, Cilt 4, Sayı 4, Sayfalar 1 - 15 2015-12-15

Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic

Sami ZEIDAN [1]

179 314

Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash?
Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic

  • Al-Banna, Ali. Al-Moshkilat Al-Bee’iya wa Sinayat Al-Mawared Al-Tabiy’eiya (Environmental Problems and Safeguarding Natural Resources). Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, 2000.
  • Amery, Hussein A., and A. A. Kubursi. 1992. “Le Litani Cle de la Renaissance Economique et de la Stabilite Politique du Liban.” Ecodecision. September, 55-57.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Security as a Factor in Arab-Israeli Wars and Emerging Peace.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 20:95-104, 1997.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 313-323.
  • Ben Shaul, D. 1990. “Divvying up the Drops: Israel Contends with Water Scarcity.” Israel Scene. June: 5-6.
  • Blanford, Nicholas. “Water Dispute in an Arid Region.” The Christian Science Monitor. http://search.csmonitor.com/durable/2001/08/03/p6s1.htm August 3, 2001.
  • Bleier, Ronald. “Will Nile Water Go to Israel? North Sinai Pipelines and the Politics of Scarcity.” Middle East Policy. September 1997, Vol. V, Number 3, pp. 113-124.
  • Buzan, Barry, Ole Waever, and Jaap de Wilde. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998.
  • Deudney, Daniel H. and Richard A. Matthew, eds. Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.
  • Haddadin, Munther J. “Water in the Middle East Peace Process.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 324-340.
  • Isaac, Jad. “The Essentials of Sustainable Resource Management in Israel and Palestine.” Arab Studies Quarterly. Belmont: Spring 2000 Vol. 22, Iss. 2, p.13. Online. ProQuest. May 6, 2004.
  • Joffe, Alexander H. “Drug Production and the Environment in Lebanon.” Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. http://www.meib.org/articles/0010_l1.htm 5 October 2000.
  • Khalidi, Walid. Conflict and Violence in Lebanon: Confrontation in the Middle East. Cambridge, MA: Center for International Affairs, Harvard University. 1979.
  • Lowi, Miriam R. The Politics of Water Under Conditions of Scarcity and Conflict: The Jordan River and Riparian States (Israel, Lebanon, Syria). Diss. Princeton U, 1990. Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003.
  • Makdisi, Karim S. Trapped Between Sovereignty and Globalization: Implementing International Environmental and Natural Resources Treaties in Developing Countries – The Case of Lebanon. Diss. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 2001. Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003.
  • Nachmani, Amikam. “Water Jitters in the Middle East.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 20:67- 93, 1997.
  • Pathak, Monika. “Water Wars Over Litani River.” Asian Profile. Vol. 27, No. 2. February 1999. pp. 181-186.
  • Priit, J. Vesilind. “Middle East Water Critical Resource.” National Geographic. 185(55): 62.
  • Selim, Mohammad El-Sayed. “Environmental Security in the Arab World.” AFES-PRESS. http://www.afes-press.de/pdf/Selim_Mont_4.pdf 20 March, 2004.
  • Simon, Steven and Jonathan Stevenson. “The Road to Damascus.” Foreign Affairs. NewYork: May/June 2004. Vol. 83, Iss. 3; p.110. Online. ProQuest. May 6, 2004.
  • Sosland, Jeffrey Karl. Cooperating rivals: The Politics of Water Scarcity, Protracted Conflict, and Complex Cooperation in the Jordan River Basin (Israel, Syria,Lebanon, Palestine). Diss. Georgetown U, 1998. Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003.
  • Sunderlin, William. Ideology, Social Theory, and the Environment. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2003.
  • Wachtel, Howard M. “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.” http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6, 2004
  • Wanna, Butros. “U.S. Expert Inspects Wazzani River Water Pumping Project in South Lebanon.” Environmental News Network. http://www.enn.com/extras/printer- friendly.asp?storyid=48444 September 17, 2002.
  • Wihbey, Paul Michael and Ilan Berman. “The Geopolitics of Water.” Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies Research Papers in Strategy. http://www.iasps.org.il/strat10/strat10.htm September 2000.
  • Winnefeld, James and Mary E. Morris. Where Environmental Concerns and Security Strategies Meet: Green Conflict in Asia and the Middle East. Santa Monica: RAND, 1994. Notes
  • * Sami ZEIDAN served as a diplomat at the United Nations from 2001 to 2005, and is currently a Master of Laws candidate at Harvard Law
  • School, as well as a doctoral student at the City University of New York Graduate Center. He can be reached at szeidan@law.harvard.edu
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Security as a Factor in Arab-Israeli Wars and Emerging Peace.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 20:95, 1997, p 95.
  • Wachtel, Howard M. “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.”http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6,
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Security as a Factor in Arab-Israeli Wars and Emerging Peace.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 20:95-104, 1997, p 100.
  • Amery, Hussein A., and A. A. Kubursi. 1992. “Le Litani Cle de la Renaissance Economique et de la Stabilite Politique du Liban.” Ecodecision. September, p 55-57.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 317. Also,see Wachtel, Howard M.
  • “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.”http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6, 2004.
  • Syria’s “indirect rule of Lebanon” has been very recently described as constituting “a dumping ground for Syrian labor, a vital link to the West, and a useful staging ground for
  • proxy attacks on Israel”, in: Simon, Steven and Jonathan Stevenson. “The Road to Damascus.” Foreign Affairs. New York: May/June 2004. Vol. 83, Iss. 3; p.110. Online.
  • ProQuest. May 6, 2004.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 316-317. Also, see Haddadin, Munther
  • J. “Water in the Middle East Peace Process.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 324-326, 331. Also, see Pathak, Monika. “Water Wars Over Litani
  • River.” Asian Profile. Vol. 27, No. 2. February 1999, p 182, 186. Also, Wachtel, Howard M. “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.”
  • http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6, 2004.
  • Statement by World Bank delegation, Middle East Peace Process, Multilateral Talks, Water Working Group, Washington DC, September 15-16, 1992, p 1, in Nachmani,
  • Amikam. “Water Jitters in the Middle East.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 20:67-93, 1997, p 68, and note 5 p 89.
  • Extensive bibliography of Arabic literature on environmental security can be found in Selim, Mohammad El-Sayed. “Environmental Security in the Arab World.” AFES-PRESS.
  • http://www.afes-press.de/pdf/Selim_Mont_4.pdf 20 March, 2004.
  • Deudney, Daniel H. and Richard A. Matthew, eds. Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.
  • Makdisi, Karim S. Trapped Between Sovereignty and Globalization: Implementing International Environmental and Natural Resources Treaties in Developing Countries – The
  • Case of Lebanon. Diss. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 2001. Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003. p 10.
  • Deudney, Daniel H. and Richard A. Matthew, eds. Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.
  • Al-Banna, Ali. Al-Moshkilat Al-Bee’iya wa Sinayat Al-Mawared Al-Tabiy’eiya (Environmental Problems and Safeguarding Natural Resources). Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi,
  • Also, see Selim, Mohammad El-Sayed. “Environmental Security in the Arab World.” AFES-PRESS. http://www.afes-press.de/pdf/Selim_Mont_4.pdf 20 March, 2004, p 20.
  • See also Winnefeld, James and Mary E. Morris. Where Environmental Concerns and Security Strategies Meet: Green Conflict in Asia and the Middle East. Santa Monica: RAND, 1994, p 51.
  • Winnefeld, James and Mary E. Morris. Where Environmental Concerns and Security Strategies Meet: Green Conflict in Asia and the Middle East. Santa Monica: RAND, 1994 p
  • The chapter also includes an interesting expanded version of the Homer-Dixon model as it applies to the Middle East context, on p 53.
  • Selim, Mohammad El-Sayed. “Environmental Security in the Arab World.” AFES-PRESS. http://www.afes-press.de/pdf/Selim_Mont_4.pdf 20 March, 2004, p 14.
  • Sunderlin, William. Ideology, Social Theory, and the Environment. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2003.
  • Buzan, Barry, Ole Waever, and Jaap de Wilde. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998, p 89. 18 Ibid, p 90.
  • Selim, Mohammad El-Sayed. “Environmental Security in the Arab World.” AFES-PRESS. http://www.afes-press.de/pdf/Selim_Mont_4.pdf 20 March, 2004, p 9-10.
  • Ibid, p 18. 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid, p 2-4.
  • Joffe, Alexander H. “Drug Production and the Environment in Lebanon.” Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. http://www.meib.org/articles/0010_l1.htm 5 October 2000.
  • Buzan, Barry, Ole Waever, and Jaap de Wilde. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998. p 91-92
  • Makdisi, Karim S. Trapped Between Sovereignty and Globalization: Implementing International Environmental and Natural Resources Treaties in Developing Countries – The
  • Case of Lebanon. Diss. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 2001. Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003. p 3-4. Makdisi examines in more detail the theory of “flows”
  • and its applicability to treaty compliance in developing countries such as Lebanon. 26 Ibid, p 4.
  • Buzan, Barry, Ole Waever, and Jaap de Wilde. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998, p 85.
  • Selim, Mohammad El-Sayed. “Environmental Security in the Arab World.” AFES-PRESS. http://www.afes-press.de/pdf/Selim_Mont_4.pdf 20 March, 2004, p 10.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 319.
  • Wihbey, Paul Michael and Ilan Berman. “The Geopolitics of Water.” Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies Research Papers in Strategy.
  • http://www.iasps.org.il/strat10/strat10.htm September 2000.
  • Winnefeld, James and Mary E. Morris. Where Environmental Concerns and Security Strategies Meet: Green Conflict in Asia and the Middle East. Santa Monica: RAND, 1994, p 34.
  • Joffe, Alexander H. “Drug Production and the Environment in Lebanon.” Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. http://www.meib.org/articles/0010_l1.htm 5 October 2000. 34 Ibid.
  • Winnefeld, James and Mary E. Morris. Where Environmental Concerns and Security Strategies Meet: Green Conflict in Asia and the Middle East. Santa Monica: RAND, 1994, p 35.
  • Wachtel, Howard M. “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.” http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6, 2004
  • Winnefeld, James and Mary E. Morris. Where Environmental Concerns and Security Strategies Meet: Green Conflict in Asia and the Middle East. Santa Monica: RAND, 1994, p 35. 38 Ibid. 39 Ibid, p 40.
  • Makdisi, Karim S. Trapped Between Sovereignty and Globalization: Implementing International Environmental and Natural Resources Treaties in Developing Countries – The
  • Case of Lebanon. Diss. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 2001. Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003. p 7. 41 Ibid, p iv.
  • Blaikie, Piers and John Mope Simo, “Cameroon’s Environmental Accords: Signed, Sealed, but Undelivered,” in Ibid, p. 1-2. 43 Ibid, p 43-85.
  • Priit, J. Vesilind. “Middle East Water Critical Resource.” National Geographic. 185(55), p 62. Similarly, see note 77 of Nachmani, Amikam. “Water Jitters in the Middle East.”
  • Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 20:67-93, 1997, p 93.
  • Desalinization, which is still in its infancy, may help produce more usable water, but the basic problem remains the overall management and use of water.
  • Wachtel, Howard M. “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.” http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6, 2004
  • Wolf, A. T. ‘Hydrostrategic Territory in the Jordan Basin in Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No.
  • , December 2002, p 313.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 313. 49 Ibid.
  • Sosland, Jeffrey Karl. Cooperating rivals: The Politics of Water Scarcity, Protracted Conflict, and Complex Cooperation in the Jordan River Basin (Israel, Syria, Lebanon,
  • Palestine). Diss. Georgetown U, 1998. Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003.
  • Lowi, Miriam R. The Politics of Water Under Conditions of Scarcity and Conflict: The Jordan River and Riparian States (Israel, Lebanon, Syria). Diss. Princeton U, 1990.
  • Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003.
  • Bleier, Ronald. “Will Nile Water Go to Israel? North Sinai Pipelines and the Politics of Scarcity.” Middle East Policy. September 1997, Vol. V, Number 3, p 113-124.
  • Haddadin, Munther J. “Water in the Middle East Peace Process.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 331.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 316. 55 Ibid. 56 Ibid.
  • Haddadin, Munther J. “Water in the Middle East Peace Process.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 330.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 318.
  • Wanna, Butros. “U.S. Expert Inspects Wazzani River Water Pumping Project in South Lebanon.” Environmental News Network. http://www.enn.com/extras/printer
  • friendly.asp?storyid=48444 September 17, 2002.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 320.
  • Haddadin, Munther J. “Water in the Middle East Peace Process.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 331.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 319. The spokesman, Timur Goksel,
  • also described the Israeli threats as “mostly posturing”. He also said: “Things get blown out of proportion too easily. You have a guy who wants to irrigate his land and fill a couple
  • of swimming pools, and the story gets blown up until it’s the next Middle East water crisis. But given the prevailing tensions in the region, you can’t rule out an escalation.” In
  • Blanford, Nicholas. “Water Dispute in an Arid Region.” The Christian Science Monitor. http://search.csmonitor.com/durable/2001/08/03/p6s1.htm August 3, 2001.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 320. 64 Ibid. 65 Ibid. 67 Ibid.
  • Haddadin, Munther J. “Water in the Middle East Peace Process.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 326. 69 Ibid, p 337.
  • Amery, Hussein A. “Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 317.
  • Ibid, p 322. 72 Ibid.
  • Haddadin, Munther J. “Water in the Middle East Peace Process.” The Geographical Journal. Vol. 168, No. 4, December 2002, p 337.
  • Nachmani, Amikam. “Water Jitters in the Middle East.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 20:67-93, 1997, p 88.
  • Lowi, Miriam R. The Politics of Water Under Conditions of Scarcity and Conflict: The Jordan River and Riparian States (Israel, Lebanon, Syria). Diss. Princeton U, 1990.
  • Online. Dissertation Abstracts. 5 May 2003.
  • Wachtel, Howard M. “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.” http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6,
  • Wihbey, Paul Michael and Ilan Berman. “The Geopolitics of Water.” Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies Research Papers in Strategy.
  • http://www.iasps.org.il/strat10/strat10.htm September 2000
  • Wachtel, Howard M. “The Intersection of Food and Water Security: A Case Study of the Near East.” http://www.american.edu/cas/econ/faculty/wachtel/intersection.pdf May 6, 2004
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Bibtex @ { alternatives21035, journal = {Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations}, issn = {2146-0809}, eissn = {1303-5525}, address = {Yalova Üniversitesi}, year = {2015}, volume = {4}, pages = {1 - 15}, doi = {}, title = {Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic}, key = {cite}, author = {ZEIDAN, Sami} }
APA ZEIDAN, S . (2015). Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic. Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations, 4 (4), 1-15. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/alternatives/issue/1712/21035
MLA ZEIDAN, S . "Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic". Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations 4 (2015): 1-15 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/alternatives/issue/1712/21035>
Chicago ZEIDAN, S . "Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic". Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations 4 (2015): 1-15
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic AU - Sami ZEIDAN Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 15 VL - 4 IS - 4 SN - 2146-0809-1303-5525 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic %A Sami ZEIDAN %T Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic %D 2015 %J Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations %P 2146-0809-1303-5525 %V 4 %N 4 %R %U
ISNAD ZEIDAN, Sami . "Can Abundance and Scarcity Clash? Environmental Security in Lebanon’s Second Republic". Alternatives :Turkish Journal Of International Relations 4 / 4 (Aralık 2015): 1-15.