Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı , Sayfalar 141 - 147 2017-11-15

Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota
Cardiovasculer Diseases and Microbiota

Perihan Varım [1] , Mehmet Bülent Vatan [2] , Ceyhun Varım [3]

160 1148

Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar (KVH) dünya genelinde ölümlerin en sık nedenidir. Dünyadaki tüm ölümlerin %31’ini oluşturmaktadır. KVH için sigara kullanımı, sağlıksız beslenme, obezite, fi ziksel inaktivite, yüksek kan basıncı (hipertansiyon), yüksek kan yağları ve diyabet gibi risk faktörleri mevcuttur Vücudun deri, ağız, vajina, bağırsaklar gibi çeşitli bölgelerinde yerleşmiş bakterilere o bölgenin “florası”, yeni adıyla “mikrobiyota”sı denmektedir. Mikroorganizmaların genomuna ise “mikrobiyom” adı verilmektedir. İnsan vücudu %10 kendi hücresi ve % 90’ı mevcut konağa yerleşmiş mikrobiya hücrelerden oluşmaktadır. İntestinal mikrobiyota; vücudumuzda fi zyolojik, metabolik ve immun sistem üzerinde oldukça önemli görevler üstlenmektedir. Enerji taşıyıcı rolü üstlenerek veya immun modüle edici maddeleri serbest bırakarak gerekli metabolik süreçleri kontrol eden bağırsak bakterileri bu nedenle günümüzde yeni bir “metabolik organ” olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bağırsak Mikrobiyotası ile son dönemde yapılan çalışmalarda Mikrobiyota ile hem metabolik hem de kardiyovasküler hastalıklar arasında ilişki olduğu gösterilmiştir İntestinal mikrobiyotanın birçok hastalıkla ilişkili bulunması mikrobiyota modifi kasyonunun tedavide kullanılabilirliğini gündeme getirmiştir.İntestinal mikrobiyotanın probiyotik, prebiyotik ve simbiyotik gibi ürünlerle modifi ye edilmesi giderek önem kazanan tedavi yöntemi olmaktadır.

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death in worldwide It accounts for 31% of all deaths in the world. Risk factors for CVD are smoking, unhealthy diet, obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure (hypertension), high blood fat and diabetes Bacteria that have been settled in various parts of the body such as skin, mouth, vagina, intestines are called “floras”, new name is called “microbiota”. The genome of microorganisms is called “ microbiome “ The human body is composed of 10% of its own cells and 90% of the existing microbial cells.Intestinal microbiota; carries out very important tasks on the physiological, metabolic and immunological systems in our body.Intestinal bacteria that control the necessary metabolic processes by assuming the role of energy carrier or releasing immunomodulating substances because of this it is now defi ned as a new “metabolic organ”. Recent studies with intestinal microbiology have shown that microbiota is associated with both metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Intestinal microbiota associated with many diseases has made it possible to use microbiota modification in therapy. The modification of the intestinal microbiota with products like probiotic, prebiotic and symbiotic becomes increasingly important treatment method.

  • 1. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2011
  • 2. Emoto T, Yamashita T, Sasaki N et al. Analysis of gut microbiota in coronary artery disease patients: a possible link between gut microbiota and coronary artery disease. J. Atheroscler. Thromb. 2016;23(8):908–921
  • 3. Belkaid Y, Hand TW. Role of the microbiota in immunity and infl ammation. Cell 2014;157:121–41
  • 4. Ley RE, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine. Cell. 2006;124(4):837–848.
  • 5. Bull M.J, Plummer N.T.. Part 1: The Human Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease. In: Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal 2014;13(6):17-22.
  • 6. Jandhyala SM, Talukdar R, Subramanyam C, Vuyyuru H, Sasikala M, Reddy DN. Role of the normal gut microbiota. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG. 2015;21(29):8787-8803.
  • 7. Altuntaş Y, Batman A Mikrobiyota ve metabolik sendrom Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2017;45(3):286–296
  • 8. NIH HMP Working Group, Peterson J, Garges S, Giovanni M, McInnes P, Wang L, Schloss JA, Bonazzi V, McEwen JE, Wetterstrand KA, Deal C, Baker CC, Di Francesco V, Howcroft TK, Karp RW, Lunsford RD, Wellington CR, Belachew T, Wright M, Giblin C, David H, Mills M, Salomon R, Mullins C, Akolkar B, Begg L, Davis C, Grandison L, Humble M, Khalsa J, Little AR, Peavy H, Pontzer C, Portnoy M, Sayre MH, Starke-Reed P, Zakhari S, Read J, Watson B, Guyer M. The NIH Human Microbiome Project. Genome Res. 2009 Dec;19(12):2317-23.
  • 9. Kasai C, Sugimoto K, Moritani I, et al. Comparison of the gut microbiota composition between obese and non-obese individuals in a Japanese population, as analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and next-generation sequencing. BMC Gastroenterology. 2015;15:100.
  • 10. Kallus SJ, Brandt LJ. The intestinal microbiota and obesity. J Clin Gastroenterol 2012;46:16-24.
  • 11. Hooper LV, Wong MH, Thelin A, et al. Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 2001;291:881-433.
  • 12. Duncan SH, Lobley GE, Holtrop G, et al. Human colonic microbiota associated with diet, obesity and weight loss. Int J Obes 2008;32:1720-4.
  • 13. Mackowiak PA. The normal microbial fl ora. N Engl J Med 1982;307:83–93.
  • 14. Schwiertz A, Taras D, Schäfer K, Beijer S, Bos NA, Donus C, et al. Microbiota and SCFA in lean and overweight healthy subjects. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:190–5.
  • 15. Nadal I, Santacruz A, Marcos A, Warnberg J, Garagorri JM,Moreno LA, et al. Shifts in clostridia, bacteroides and immunoglobulincoating fecal bacteria associated with weight loss in obese adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:758–67.
  • 16. Khan S, Jena G. The role of butyrate, a histone deacetylaseinhibitor in diabetes mellitus: experimental evidence for the trapeutic intervention. Epigenomics 2015;7:669–80
  • 17. Bennion LJ, Grundy SM. Effects of diabetes mellitus on cholesterol metabolism in man. N Engl J Med 1977;296:1365–71.
  • 18. Ma K, Saha PK, Chan L, Moore DD. Farnesoid X receptor is essential for normal glucose homeostasis. J Clin Invest 2006;116:1102–9.
  • 19. Chen L, McNulty J, Anderson D, Liu Y, Nystrom C, Bullard S, et al. Cholestyramine reverses hyperglycemia and enhances glucosestimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 release in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010;334:164–70.
  • 20. Shang Q, Saumoy M, Holst JJ, Salen G, Xu G. Colesevelam improves insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (F-DIO) rat model by increasing the release of GLP-1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010;298:419–24.
  • 21. Koren O, Spor A, Felin J, Fåk F, Stombaugh J, Tremaroli V, et al. Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;108 Suppl 1:4592–8
  • 22. Karlsson FH, Fåk F, Nookaew I, Tremaroli V, Fagerberg B, Petranovic D, et al. Symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with an altered gut metagenome. Nat Commun 2012;3:1245.
  • 23. Rodes L, Khan A, Paul A, Coussa-Charley M, Marinescu D, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, et al. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifi dobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharides and infl ammatory cytokines: an in vitro study using a human colonic microbiota model. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2013;23:518–26
  • 24. Tang WH, Wang Z, Levison BS, Koeth RA, Britt EB, Fu X, et al. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2013;368:1575–84.
  • 25. Seldin MM, Meng Y, Qi H, Zhu W, Wang Z, Hazen SL, Lusis AJ, Shih DM. Trimethylamine N-Oxide Promotes Vascular Infl ammation Through Signaling of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Nuclear Factor-βB. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Feb 22;5(2).
  • 26. Honour J. The possıble ınvolvement of ıntestınal bacterıa ın steroıdal hypertensıon Endocrinology 1982; 110 (1): 285-287.
  • 27. Yang T, Santisteban MM, Rodriguez V, Li E, Ahmari N, Carvajal JM, Zadeh M, Gong M, Qi Y, Zubcevic J, Sahay B, Pepine CJ, Raizada MK,Mohamadzadeh M Gut dysbiosis is linked to hypertension. Hypertension. 2015 Jun;65(6):1331-40.
  • 28. Brown AJ, Goldsworthy SM, Barnes AA, Eilert MM, Tcheang L, Daniels D, et al. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. J Biol Chem 2003;278:11312–9
  • 29. Miyamoto J, Kasubuchi M, Nakajima A, Irie J, Itoh H, Kimura I. The role of short-chain fatty acid on blood pressure regulation. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2016;25:379–83.
  • 30. Fu J , Bonder MJ, Cenit MC, et The Gut Microbiome Contributes to a Substantial Proportion of the Variation in Blood Lipids.circ Res. 2015;117:817-824
  • 31. Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, Tan G, Yang D, Chou CJ, et al. Chronic infl ammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2003;112:1821–30.
  • 32. den Besten G, Lange K, Havinga R, van Dijk TH, Gerding A, van Eunen K, et al. Gut-derived short-chain fatty acids are vividly assimilated into host carbohydrates and lipids. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2013;305:900–10
  • 33. Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, Buffa JA, Org E, Sheehy BT, et al. Intestinal microbiotametabolism of lβcarnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. NatureMedicine. 2013;19(5):576β585.
  • 34. Lambert G, Amar MJ, Guo G, Brewer HB Jr, Gonzalez FJ, Sinal CJ. The farnesoid X-receptor is an essential regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. J Biol Chem 2003;278:2563–70.
  • 35. Maruyama T, Miyamoto Y, Nakamura T, Tamai Y, Okada H, Sugiyama E, et al. Identifi cation of membrane-type receptor for bile acids (M-BAR). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;298(5):714–9
  • 36. Salminen S. Human studies on probiotics: aspects of scientifi c documentation. Scand J Nutr 2001;45: 8-12.
  • 37. Hill HS, Guarner F. Probiotics and human health: a clinical perspective. Postgrad Med J. 2004 Sep;80(947):516-26.
  • 38. Yadav H, Jain S, Sinha PR. Antidiabetic effect of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in high fructose fed rats. Nutrition 2007;23:62–8.
  • 39. Guo Z, Liu XM, Zhang QX, Shen Z, Tian FW, Zhang H, et al. Infl uence of consumption of probiotics on the plasma lipid profi le: a metaanalysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011;21:844–50.
  • 40. Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D, et al. Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:1236–43.
  • 41. Borody TJ, Campbell J. Fecal microbiota transplantation: techniques, applications, and issues. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2012;41:781–803.
  • 42. Vrieze A, Van Nood E, Holleman F, Salojärvi J, Kootte RS, Bartelsman JF, et al. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology 2012;143:913–6.
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Dergi Bölümü Derleme
Yazarlar

Yazar: Perihan Varım (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Sakarya Üniversitesi, Sakarya Eğitim Araştırma Hastanesi, Kardiyoloji Kliniği, Sakarya
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Mehmet Bülent Vatan
Kurum: Sakarya Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Kardiyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Sakarya
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Ceyhun Varım
Kurum: Sakarya Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Dahiliye Anabilim Dalı, Sakarya
Ülke: Turkey


Bibtex @derleme { bshr363372, journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH}, issn = {}, eissn = {2587-1641}, address = {Deneysel, Biyoteknolojik, Klinik ve Stratejik Sağlık Araştırmaları Derneği}, year = {2017}, volume = {1}, pages = {141 - 147}, doi = {}, title = {Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota}, key = {cite}, author = {Varım, Perihan and Vatan, Mehmet Bülent and Varım, Ceyhun} }
APA Varım, P , Vatan, M , Varım, C . (2017). Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota. JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH, 1 (), 141-147. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/bshr/issue/32641/363372
MLA Varım, P , Vatan, M , Varım, C . "Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota". JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH 1 (2017): 141-147 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/bshr/issue/32641/363372>
Chicago Varım, P , Vatan, M , Varım, C . "Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota". JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH 1 (2017): 141-147
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota AU - Perihan Varım , Mehmet Bülent Vatan , Ceyhun Varım Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 141 EP - 147 VL - 1 IS - SN - -2587-1641 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota %A Perihan Varım , Mehmet Bülent Vatan , Ceyhun Varım %T Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota %D 2017 %J JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH %P -2587-1641 %V 1 %N %R %U
ISNAD Varım, Perihan , Vatan, Mehmet Bülent , Varım, Ceyhun . "Kardiyovasküler Hastalıklar ve Mikrobiyota". JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC HEALTH RESEARCH 1 / (Kasım 2017): 141-147.