Yıl 2018, Cilt , Sayı 157, Sayfalar 59 - 74 2018-12-15

Üst Kretase Zagros tebeşirli kireçtaşının (Kometan Formasyonu) jeolojisi ve eleştirel değerlendirmesi (Süleymaniye, KD Irak)
Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq

Kamal Haji KARIM [1] , Sherzad Tofeeq AL-BARZINJY [2] , Polla Azad KHANAQA [3]

89 138

Tebeşirli kireçtaşları (Kometan Formasyonu) Geç Türoniyen – Orta Kampaniyen yaşlı olup, Kuzeydoğu Irak’ta, Süleymaniye bölgesindeki Yüksek, İmbrike ve Bindirme Zonlarında yüzeylemektedir. Bu kireçtaşları yanal olarak, Kuzeybatı ve Batı Irak’a doğru sırasıyla Bekhme ve Mushurah formasyonlarına geçmekte olup, resifal eşdeğerleri ise Orta Irak’taki petrol sahalarının altında yer almaktadır. Stratigrafik olarak üstteki Shiranish Formasyonu (Orta-Geç Kampaniyen) ile alttaki Gulneri Formasyonu (Geç Senomaniyen-Erken Türoniyen) arasında yer almaktadır. 40-120 metre arası bir kalınlığa sahip olan birim pelajik ortamda çökelmiştir. Önceki bütün çalışmalarda, tabaka yüzeyleri üzerinde veya yakınında yoğun çört nodülleri ve stilolitlerin olduğu, tabaka düzlemleri belirgin ve ince taneli derin deniz fasiyesindeki kireçtaşları olarak tanımlanmıştır. Fosil kayıtlarında yalnızca nannofosil ve planktik formlar ile az miktardaki bentik foraminiferlere rastlanır. Bütün bunların aksine, son zamanlarda yapılan bir çalışmada yukarıdaki tüm özellikler reddedilmiş ve litoloji, bol miktarda Thalassinoides iz fosili içeren masif, homojen bir kireçtaşı olarak değiştirilmiştir. Buna ilaveten tabakalanma yüzeylerinin aslında gerçek tabakalanma olmadığı (yalancı tabakalanma); depolanma ile değil, stilolitleşme ile meydana geldiği sonucuna varılmıştır. Bu çalışma Kretase yaşlı tebeşirli kireçtaşlarının jeolojisine ilişkin bilgileri güncelleme ve eleştirel bir değerlendirme üzerine odaklanmakta; yukarıda belirtilen tüm fikirlerin karşılaştırılmasına ek olarak yeni fikirleri de tanıştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Önceki yazarların belirttiği Thalassinoides, masiflik ve yalancı tabakalanma özellikleri tartışılmış ve bulunmayışları arazi ve laboratuvar çalışmaları ile teyit edilmiş ve doğrulanmıştır. Ayrıca masiflik durumu reddedilmiş ve tabaka düzlemlerinin belirginliği (nispeten ince tabakalı) bütün kesitlerde formasyonun temel bir özelliği olarak ortaya konmuştur. Bu çalışma ayrıca çört nodülleri ve çört tabakalarının; biyotürbasyon, kırıntılı malzeme, derecelenme, laminasyon ve renk değişiminin yokluğuna bağlı olarak iz fosiller ile bir ilişkisinin olmadığını göstermektedir. Öte yandan Kometan Formasyonunun Zagros önülke (foreland) havzasında depolanması fikri reddedilmekte; ofiyolit üzerlemesi ve önülke oluşumu öncesinde Neotetis Denizi’nin (ya da okyanusu) kıtasal kenarında depolandığı fikri kabul edilmektedir. 

The chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) is aged Late Turonian–Middle Campanian and cropping out in the High, Imbricate and Thrust Zones of northeastern Iraq, Sulaimani area. It laterally changes to Bekhme and Mushurah formations toward northwest and west Iraq respectively and its reefal equivalents  occurs too in subsurface of Central Iraq in the oil fields. Stratigraphically, it is located between Shiranish Formation (Middle-Late Campanian), at the top, and Gulneri Formation (Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian) at its base. It has the thickness of about 40-120 meter and deposited in pelagic realm. All previous studies have defined it as well bedded and fine grain limestone of deep marine facies with concentration of chert nodules and stylolites on or near bedding surfaces. The only recorded fossils are nannofossils, planktonic forms and rare benthonic forams. On the contrary, a most recent study has declined all the above features and changed lithology to massive, homogenous limestone with abundant Thalassinoides trace fossils. It additionally concluded that the bedding surfaces are not true bedding (pseudo-bedding) and formed by stylolization not by deposition. The present study is focusing on update the geology of the Cretaceous chalky limestone and critical review in addition to comparison of all the above ideas and introducing new ones. The features of the Thalassinoides, massiveness and pseudo-bedding of previous authors discussed and their absence confirmed and justified by field and laboratory works.  Moreover, the massiveness is refused and well bedding (relatively has thin beds) is proved as an intrinsic characteristic of the formation in all section. The study also shows absence of relation of the chert nodules and chert bedding with traces fossils due to absence of bioturbation, detrital clasts, bioclasts, sorting, lamination and color change. Moreover, the idea of deposition of Kometan Formation in Zagros Foreland basin refused and assumed as deposition of continental margin of Neo-Tethys Sea (or ocean) before ophiolitic obduction and foreland generation.

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Yazarlar

Orcid: orcid.org/0000-0003-0685-3103
Yazar: Kamal Haji KARIM (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Department Geology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, New camp, Siulaimani city, Iraq
Ülke: Iraq


Orcid: orcid.org/0000-0002-8010-1551
Yazar: Sherzad Tofeeq AL-BARZINJY
Kurum: Department Geology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, New camp, Siulaimani city, Iraq
Ülke: Iraq


Orcid: orcid.org/0000-0003-1045-8720
Yazar: Polla Azad KHANAQA
Kurum: Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Qrga, Sulaimani city, Iraq
Ülke: Iraq


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { bulletinofmre428342, journal = {Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi}, issn = {0026-4563}, eissn = {2651-3048}, address = {Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü}, year = {2018}, volume = {}, pages = {59 - 74}, doi = {10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342}, title = {Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq}, key = {cite}, author = {AL-BARZINJY, Sherzad Tofeeq and KHANAQA, Polla Azad and KARIM, Kamal Haji} }
APA KARIM, K , AL-BARZINJY, S , KHANAQA, P . (2018). Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi, (157), 59-74. DOI: 10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342
MLA KARIM, K , AL-BARZINJY, S , KHANAQA, P . "Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq". Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi (2018): 59-74 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/bulletinofmre/issue/33397/428342>
Chicago KARIM, K , AL-BARZINJY, S , KHANAQA, P . "Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq". Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi (2018): 59-74
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq AU - Kamal Haji KARIM , Sherzad Tofeeq AL-BARZINJY , Polla Azad KHANAQA Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342 DO - 10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342 T2 - Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 59 EP - 74 VL - IS - 157 SN - 0026-4563-2651-3048 M3 - doi: 10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq %A Kamal Haji KARIM , Sherzad Tofeeq AL-BARZINJY , Polla Azad KHANAQA %T Geology and critical review of the Upper Cretaceous Zagros chalky limestone (Kometan Formation) from Sulaimani Governorate, Northeastern Iraq %D 2018 %J Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi %P 0026-4563-2651-3048 %V %N 157 %R doi: 10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342 %U 10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342
ISNAD KARIM, Kamal Haji , AL-BARZINJY, Sherzad Tofeeq , KHANAQA, Polla Azad . "Üst Kretase Zagros tebeşirli kireçtaşının (Kometan Formasyonu) jeolojisi ve eleştirel değerlendirmesi (Süleymaniye, KD Irak)". Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi / 157 (Aralık 2018): 59-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.19111/bulletinofmre.428342