Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, Sayfalar 25 - 30 2017-12-29

Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758)
Eskişehir ve Kütahya’daki Toy Kuşu (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758)’nun Yaşam Alanlarında Kullanılan Tarımsal İlaçlar

Muharrem KARAKAYA [1] , Mehmet Mahir KARATAŞ [2] , Ünal ÖZELMAS [3]

72 68

The habitat of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758) in our country, due to the change of agricultural land to the natural and secondary steppe, nowadays constitutes mostly farmland. In addition to the pest control in the field of agriculture and indirectly to get more products from agricultural areas, wide variety of pesticides (Herbicides, Rodenticides, Insecticides, etc.) are used. In this study, it has been aimed to identify what agricultural pesticides are used in the living areas of the species and based on these findings the possible effects on this species are compared with the previous literature. This study was carried out in Eskişehir Aliken Important Nature Area and Kütahya Altıntaş Wildlife Development Area between March 2013 and May 2017. During the field survey in the habitat of great bustard, it was determined that 13 different active ingredients of herbicide, 3 different active ingredients of insecticide, and 2 different active ingredients of fungicide were used and these pesticides’ photographs were taken and coordinates were noted. Finally, the written articles on the determined pesticide active ingredients were scanned and potential impacts on these endangered species are discussed.

Ülkemizde Toy Kuşu (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758)’nun yaşam alanları, doğal ve ikincil bozkırların tarım alanlarına dönüştürülmesinden dolayı, günümüzde çoğunlukla tarım arazileri oluşturmaktadır. Yine günümüzde tarım alanlarındaki zararlılarla mücadele etmek ve dolaylı olarak tarım alanlarından daha fazla ürün almak için çok çeşitli tarım ilaçları (Herbisit, Rodentisit, İnsektisit vb.) kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada bu türün yaşam alanları içerisinde kullanılan tarım ilaçlarının neler olduğu belirlenerek elde edilen bulgularla literatür karşılaştırması da yapılarak bu ilaçların bu tür üzerindeki olası etkilerinin tartışılması amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışma, Mart 2013-Mayıs 2017 tarihleri arasında Eskişehir ili Aliken Önemli Doğa Alanı (ÖDA) ve Kütahya İli Altıntaş Yaban Hayatı Geliştirme Sahası (YHGS) içinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan arazi çalışmaları sırasında Toy kuşunun yaşam alanları içinde kullanılan 13 farklı herbisit aktif maddesi, 3 farklı insektisit aktif maddesi ve 2 farklı fungisit aktif maddesi belirlenmiş, fotoğraflanmış ve koordinatları alınmıştır. Son olarak belirlenen bu tarımsal ilaçların etken maddeleri üzerine yapılan makaleler taranmış ve nesli tehlikede olan bu tür üzerine oluşturacağı olası etkileri tartışılmıştır.

  • Abdel-Rahman, A., Shetty, A. K., Abu-Donia, M. B. 2001: Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex in the hippocampus, and Purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Experimental Neurology, 172: 153.
  • Abdel-Rahman, A., Dechkovskaia, A. M., Goldstein, L. B., Bullman, S. H., Khan, W., El Masry, E. M. 2004: Neurological deficits induced by malathion, DEET, and permethrin, alone or in combination in adult rats. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health A, 67: 331.
  • Ahmad, M. Z., Khan, A., Javed, M. T., Hussain, I. 2015: Impact of chlorpyrifos on health biomarkers of broilerchicks. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.12.024.
  • Alonso, J. A., Martin, C. A., Alonso, J. C., Morales, M. B., Lane, S. J. 2001: Seasonal movements of male Great Bustards in Central Spain. Journal of Field Ornithology, 72(4): 504-508.
  • Alonso, J. C., Martin, C. A., Palacin, C., Magana, M., Martin, B. 2003: Distribution, size and recent trends of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) population in Madrid Region, Spain. Ardeola, 50(1): 21-29.
  • Asare-Boamah, N. K., Hofstra, G., Fletcher, R. A., Dumbroff, E. B. 1986: Triadimefon protects bean plants from water stress through its effects on ABA. Plant and Cell Physiology, 27: 383-390.
  • Avcı, F., Adızel, Ö., Azizoğlu, E. 2017: A Study On Ornithofauna of Muş Plain. Adıyaman Üniversitesi Tarımsal Uygulama ve Arazi Yönetimi Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi, Cilt 5, Sayı 1: 20-32.
  • Barati, A. and Amerifar, A. A. 2008: On the status of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Otididae) in Kurdistan Province, İran. Zoology in the Middle East, 43: 41-48.
  • Baril, A., Jobin, B., Mineau, P., Collins, B. T. 1994: A consideration of inter-species variability in the use of the median lethal dose (LD50) in avian risk assessment, Canadian Wildlife Service Technology Report No. 216. Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec.
  • Bhanu, S., Archana, S., Ajay, K., Bhatt, J. L., Bajpai, S. P., Singh, P. S., Vandana, P. 2011: Impact of Deltamethrin on Environment, use as an Insecticide and its Bacterial degradation–A preliminary study. International Journal Of Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, No 5.
  • Birdlife International, 2015: BirdLife Europe position paper: reducing direct and indirect impacts of pesticides on birds, http://www.birdlife.org/sites/default/files/attachments/ 20150504_ATF-pesticides-position.pdf (Date of access: 30.11.2017).
  • Boutin, C., Freemark, K. E., Kirk, D. A. 1999: Farmland birds in southern Ontario: field use, activity patterns and vulnerability to pesticide use. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 72: 239-254.
  • Bravo, C., Ponce, C., Palacin, C., Alonso, J. C. 2012: Diet of young Great Bustards Otis tarda in Spain: sexual and seasonal differences. Bird Study, iFirst: 1-9.
  • Cantalamessa, F. 1993: Acute toxicity of 2 pyrethroids, permethrin and cypermethrin in neonatal and adult rats. Archives of Toxicology, 67: 510.
  • Casida, J. E., Ueda, K., Gaughan, L. C., Jao, L. T., Soderlund, D. M. 1975: Structure- biodegradability relationships in pyrethroid insecticides. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 3: 491.
  • Chu, S., Henny, C. J., Kaiser, J. L., Drouillard, K. G., Haffner, G. D., Letcher, R. J. 2007: Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA. Environmental Pollution, 145: 374-381.
  • Cooke, L. R., Little, G. 2010: Evaluation of mandipropamid for the control of potato late blight in Northern Ireland. Twelfth Euro Blight workshop Arras, 3-6 May, France.
  • European Bird Census Council (EBCC), 2014: http://www.ebcc.info/ (accessed 20.05.14).
  • Emre, H., Keles, M., Uyanık, A., Emet, M., Bilen, Y., Bayraktutan, D. 2011: Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure as a result of bentazone intoxication. Eastern Journal of Medicine, 16: 59-61.
  • Enayati, A. A., Asgarian, F., Amouei, A., Sharif, M., Mortazavi, H., Boujhmehrani, H., Hemingway, J. 2010: Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Rhipicephalus bursa (Acari, Ixodidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 97: 243–248.
  • Engelman, C. A., Grant, W. E., Mora, M. A., Woodin, M. 2012: Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study. Ecological Modelling, 224: 90– 102.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2009: Guidance document on risk assessment for birds & mammals on request from EFSA. EFSA Journal, 7(12): 1438.
  • Freemark, K. and Boutin C. 1995: Impacts of agricultural herbicide use on terrestrial wildlife in temperate landscapes: A review with special reference to North America. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 52: 67-91.
  • Fry, D. M. 1995: Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103 (Suppl7): 165–171.
  • Galal, M. K., Khalaf, A. A., Ogaly, H. A., Ibrahim, M. A. 2014: Multimechanistic neuroprotective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin induced brain toxicity. Toxicology Report, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016.j.toxrep.2014.09.008.
  • Gile, J. D. and Eyers, S. M. 1986: Effect of adult mallard age on avian reproduction tests, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 15: 751–756.
  • Goulson, D. 2014: Ecology: pesticides linked to bird declines. Nature, 511: 295–296.
  • Güneş, E. and Yerli, S. V 2011: Effects of Deltamethrin on Lipase Activity in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11: 473-476.
  • Hallmann, C. A., Foppen, R. P. B., Van Turnhout, C. A. M., De Kroon, H., Jongejans, E. 2014: Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations. Nature, 51: 341–343.
  • Huber, R. and Otto, S. 1994: Environmental behavior of bentazon herbicide. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 137: 111-134.
  • Hoffman, D. J. and Albers, P. H. 1984: Evaluation of potential embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of 42 herbicides, insecticides, and petroleum contaminants to mallard eggs. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 13:15-27.
  • Horreo, J. L., Palacin, C., Alonso, J. C., Mila, B. 2013: A link between historical population decline in the threatened great bustard and human expansion in Iberia: evidence from genetic and demographic data. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 110: 518–527.
  • Imamura, L., Hasegawa, H., Kurashina, K., Matsuno, T., Truda, M. 2002: Neonatal exposure of newborn mice to pyrethroid (permethrin) represses activity-dependent c-Fos mRNA expression in cerebellum. Archives of Toxicology, 76: 392.
  • Jaleel, C. A., Gopi, R., Kishorekumar, A., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Panneerselvam, R. 2008: Interactive effect of triadimefon and salt stress on antioxidative status and ajmalicine accumulation in Catharanthus roseus. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30: 287-292.
  • Jiang, Y., Swale, D., Carlier, P. R., Hartsel, J. A., Ma, M., Ekström, F., Bloomquist, J. R. 2013: Evaluation of novel carbamate insecticides for neurotoxicity to non-target species. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 106: 156–161.
  • Jin, T., Zeng, L., Lu, Y., Xu, Y., Liang, G. 2010: Identification of resistance-responsive proteins in larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), for pyrethroid toxicity by a proteomic approach. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 96: 1–7.
  • Karataş, M. M. and Özelmas, Ü. 2013: The study on the population of Great Bustard (Otis tarda) in Altıntaş plain, Kütahya/Turkey. Biological Diversity and Conservation, 6(3): 92-96.
  • Karataş, M. M., Karakaya, M., Özelmas, Ü. 2015: Agricultural pesticides used on Central West Anatolian (Eskişehir/Turkey) population areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda). Biological Diversity and Conservation, 8(3): 254-258.
  • Krebs, J. R., Wilson, J. D., Bradbury, R. B., Siriwardena, G. M. 1999: A second silent spring?. Nature, 400: 611–612.
  • Lane, S. J., Alonso, J. C., Alonso, J. A., Naveso, M. A. 1999: Seasonal changes in diet and diet selection of Great Bustards (Otis t. tarda) in North-West Spain. Journal of Zoology, 247: 201-214.
  • Lemus, J. A., Bravo, C., Garcia-Montijano, M., Palacin, C., Ponce, C., Magana, M., Alonso, J. C. 2011: Side effects of rodent control on non-target species: rodenticides increase parasite and pathogen burden in Great Bustards. Science of the Total Environment, Volume 409, Issue 22: 4729-4734.
  • Lopez-Antia, A., Ortiz-Santaliestra, M. E., Mougeot, F., Mateo, R. 2013: Experimental exposure of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) to seeds coated with imidacloprid, thiram and difenoconazole. Ecotoxicology, 22: 125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-012-1009-x.
  • Lopez-Antia, A., Ortiz-Santaliestra, M. E., Mougeot, F., Mateo, R. 2015: Imidacloprid-treated seed ingestion has lethal effect on adult partridges and reduces both breeding investment and offspring immunity. Environmental Research, 136: 97–107.
  • Lopez-Jamar, J., Casas, F., Diaz, M., Morales, M. B. 2010: Local differences in habitat selection by Great Bustards (Otis tarda) in changing agricultural landscapes: implications for farmland bird conservation. Bird Conservation International: 1-14, doi:10.1017/S0959270910000535.
  • Mackay, C. E., Hall, J. C., Hofstra, G., Fletcher, R. A. 1990: Uniconazole induced changes in abscisic acid, total amino acids and proline in Phaseolus vulgaris. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 37: 74-82.
  • Meenakshi, S. N., Jeyeramraja, P. R., Manian, R. 2007: Degradatıon of the fungicides, Azoxystrobine and Difenoconazole in soil and their influence on soil microbial activity. Pest Technology, 1(2): 133-138.
  • Mineau, P. and Whiteside, M. 2013: Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification. PLoS One, 8: e57457.
  • Müller, I. B., Willads Petersen, H., Johansen, S. S., Theilade, P. 2003: Fatal overdose of the herbicide bentazone. Forensic Science International, 135: 235-236.
  • Moreby, S. J. and Southway, S. E. 1999: Infuence of autumn applied herbicides on summer and autumn food available to birds in winter wheat fields in southern England. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 72: 285-297.
  • Neuschl, J., Kacmar, P., Legath, J., Toma, S. J. 1992: The effect of Bentazone, a Czechoslovak developmental herbicide, on health status indicators in sheep during subchronic poisoning. Veterinary Medicine, 37: 161-167.
  • Nieradko-Iwanicka, B. and Borzecki, A. 2016: How Deltamethrin Produces Oxidative Stress in Liver and Kidney. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25(3): 1367-1371
  • National Pesticide İnformation Center (NPİC), 2015: National Pesticide İnformation Center, 2,4-D Technical Fact Sheet.
  • National Registration Authority (NRA), 2000: Evaluation of the new active Imazamox in the products Raptor Herbicide & Raptor Wg Herbicide. NRA Refs. 50853 & 50854, National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals, PO Box E240, Kingston ACT 2604 Australia.
  • Oros, D. R. and Werner, I. 2005: Pyrethroid Insecticides: An Analysis of Use Patterns, Distributions, Potential Toxicity and Fate in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Central Valley. SFEI Contribution 415 San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA.
  • Palacin, C., Alonso, J. C., Martin, C. A., Alonso, J. A. 2012: The importance of traditional farmland areas for steppe birds: a case study of migrant female Great Bustards Otis tarda in Spain. Ibis, 154: 85-95.
  • Palacin, C., Alonso, J. C. 2008: An updated estimate of the world status and population trends of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda). Ardeola, 55(1): 13-25. Pathak, M. K., Bihari, V., Mathur, N., Srivastava, A.K. 2009: Adverse health effects of pesticides in agrarian populations of developing countries. Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 200: 33-52.
  • Pinhero, R. G., Rao, M. P., Paliyath, G., Murr, D. P., Fletcher, R. A. 1997: Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes and their relationship to genetic and paclobutrazol induced chilling tolerance of maize seedlings. Plant Physiology, 114: 695-704.
  • Rinkevich, F. D., Du, Y., Dong, K. 2013: Diversity and convergence of sodium channel mutations involved in resistance to pyrethroids. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 106: 93–100.
  • Rinkevich, F. D., Su, C., Lazo, T. A., Hawthorne, D. J., Tingey, W. M., Naimov, S., Scott, J. G. 2012: Multiple evolutionary origins of knockdown resistance (kdr) in pyrethroid-resistant Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 104: 192–200.
  • Schom, C. B., Abbot, U. K., Walker, N. 1973: Organophosphorus pesticide effect of domestic game bird species, Dursban. Poultry Science, 52: 20–83.
  • Shanmugapriya, A. K., Sivakumar, T., Panneerselvam, R. 2013: Difenoconazole and Tricyclazole induced changes in photosynthetic pigments of Lycopersicon esculentum.L. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, 3(2): 72-75
  • Shono, T., Ohsawa, K., Casida, J. E. 1979: Metabolism of trans-permethrin and cis-permethrin, trans-cypermethrin, and cis-cypermethrin, and decamethrin by microsomal enzymes. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 27: 316.
  • Ural, M. Ş. and Sağlam, N. 2005: A study on the acute toxicity of pyrethroid deltamethrin on the fry rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 83: 124–131.
  • URL 2017: IUCN (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Date of access: 30.11.2017
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 1997: Imazamox, Pesticide Fact Sheet CAS No:114311-32-9. United States Enviromental Protectıon Agency, Washıngton, D.C. 20460.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2004: Mesosulfuron-methyl, TXR No:0052410. United States Enviromental Protectıon Agency, Washıngton, D.C. 20460.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2008: Mandipropamid, Pesticide Fact Sheet CAS No: 34726-62-2. United States Enviromental Protectıon Agency, Washıngton, D.C. 20460
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2010: Pyrethroids and pyrethrins, <http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reevaluation/pyrethroids-pyrethrins.html>.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2017: Difenoconazole Technical, CAS No: 119446-68-3. United States Enviromental Protectıon Agency, Washıngton, D.C. 20460.
  • Tanrıverdi Bahar, A. 2015: Muş İli Sınırları İçindeki Toy Kuşu (Otis tarda, L.,1758)’nun Üreme Ekolojisi Üzerine Araştırmalar. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Van, Türkiye
  • Thomas, M. A. and Ibels, L. S. 1985: Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 15: 623-628.
  • Werner, I. and Moran, K. 2008: Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on aquatic organisms, In: Gan, J., Spurlock, F., Hendley, P., Weston, D.P. (Eds.), Synthetic Pyrethroids: Occurrence and Behavior in Aquatic Environments. American Chemical Society, Washington DC. pp. 310–335.
  • WHO, 2011: Bentazone in drinking-water, WHO guidelines for Drinking water. http://www.cepis.opsoms.org/bvsacg/e/cdcagua/guias/b.parametos/3.RefB /quimicos/012. Bentazone/012bentazone.pdf
  • Wu, I. W., Wu, M. S., Lin, J. L. 2008: Acute renal failure induced by bentazone: 2 case reports and a comprehensive review. Journal of Nephrology, 21: 256-260.
  • Yang, Y., Ma, H., Zhou, J., Liu, J., Liu, W. 2014: Joint toxicity of permethrin and cypermethrin at sublethal concentrations to the embryo-larval zebrafish. Chemosphere, 96: 146–154.
  • Yarar, M. and Magnin, G. 1997: Türkiye’nin Önemli Kuş Alanları. Doğal Hayatı Koruma Derneği, İstanbul.
  • Yıldırım, M. Z., Benli, A. C. K., Selvi, M., Özkul, A., Erkoç, F., Kocak, O. 2006: Acute toxicity, behavioral changes, and histopathological effects of deltamethrin on tissues (Gills, Liver, Brain, Spleen, Kidney, Muscle, Skin) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings. Environmental Toxicology, 21(6): 614-620. DOI:10.1002/tox.20225.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Biyoloji
Dergi Bölümü Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Muharrem KARAKAYA
E-posta: karatas.mahir@gmail.com

Yazar: Mehmet Mahir KARATAŞ (Sorumlu Yazar)
E-posta: karatas.mahir@gmail.com

Yazar: Ünal ÖZELMAS
E-posta: karatas.mahir@gmail.com

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { commagene392116, journal = {Kommagene Biyoloji Dergisi}, issn = {}, address = {ABADER (Adıyaman Bilimsel Araştırmalar Derneği)}, year = {2017}, volume = {1}, pages = {25 - 30}, doi = {10.31594/commagene.392116}, title = {Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758)}, key = {cite}, author = {ÖZELMAS, Ünal and KARAKAYA, Muharrem and KARATAŞ, Mehmet Mahir} }
APA KARAKAYA, M , KARATAŞ, M , ÖZELMAS, Ü . (2017). Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758). Kommagene Biyoloji Dergisi, 1 (1), 25-30. DOI: 10.31594/commagene.392116
MLA KARAKAYA, M , KARATAŞ, M , ÖZELMAS, Ü . "Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758)". Kommagene Biyoloji Dergisi 1 (2017): 25-30 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/commagene/issue/34850/392116>
Chicago KARAKAYA, M , KARATAŞ, M , ÖZELMAS, Ü . "Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758)". Kommagene Biyoloji Dergisi 1 (2017): 25-30
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758) AU - Muharrem KARAKAYA , Mehmet Mahir KARATAŞ , Ünal ÖZELMAS Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.31594/commagene.392116 DO - 10.31594/commagene.392116 T2 - Kommagene Biyoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 25 EP - 30 VL - 1 IS - 1 SN - -2602-456X M3 - doi: 10.31594/commagene.392116 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.31594/commagene.392116 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Kommagene Biyoloji Dergisi Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758) %A Muharrem KARAKAYA , Mehmet Mahir KARATAŞ , Ünal ÖZELMAS %T Agricultural Pesticides Used in Eskişehir and Kütahya Population Areas of Great Bustard (Otis tarda, Linnaeus, 1758) %D 2017 %J Kommagene Biyoloji Dergisi %P -2602-456X %V 1 %N 1 %R doi: 10.31594/commagene.392116 %U 10.31594/commagene.392116