Cilt 12, Sayı 47, Sayfalar 1 - 22 2014-09-10

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA DURING THE END OF WORLD WAR I /THE GREAT WAR
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA DURING THE END OF WORLD WAR I /THE GREAT WAR

İhsan Şerif KAYMAZ [1]

142 256

Abstract In the aftermath of the First World War, because of the new conditions challenging the use of direct imperial methods, Britain had difficulties in the establishment of the administration over the Kurdish regions inMosul. It aimed to create an autonomous Kurdish state – or states – in northern Mesopotamia to be governed under its protection. It therefore used various different methods between the years 1918 and 1920. For both the legal uncertainties surrounding Mosul and the internal dynamics within the social structure those attempts were proven futile. As it was understood that the Kurdistan scheme could not be fulfilled, debates on retreat came into prominence. Kurdish question came yet once again at the top of the problems Britain faced in Iraq after the creation of that state. The question got even more troublesome when Turkey stepped in. After the League of Nations Council announced its final decision on the future of Mosul and ruled that Mosulwould be united with the State of Iraq under a British mandate, Britain, upon Council's invitation took the necessary administrative measures to guarantee the protection of the Kurdish people. Thus, a Kurdish national identity, to enable the creation of a Kurdish state in the future, was built. Using mainly the British, Ottoman and Iraqi archival material has been inquired about Britain's perception of the Kurdish question and its reasons for failure. Key Words: Britain, Kurdistan, Mosul vilayet, Iraq, Turkey.
Birinci Dünya Savaşı sonrasında, doğrudan emperyalist yöntemlerin kullanılmasını zorlaştıran yeni koşullar nedeniyle İngiltere Musul vilâyetinin Kürt bölgeleri üzerinde bir yönetim düzeni kurmakta zorlandı. Öncelikle Kuzey Mezopotamya'da kendi koruması altında özerk bir Kürt devleti -ya da devletleri- kurmayı amaçladı. Bu nedenle 1918 ve 1920 yılları arasında birçok farklı yöntem denedi. Fakat hem Musul vilayetiyle ilgili savaş sonrası koşullarının yarattığı hukuki belirsizlikler, hem de vilayetin toplumsal bünyesindeki iç dinamikler bu girişimlerin sonuç vermesini engelledi. 1920 yılı başlarında "Kürdistan" planının uygulanamayacağı anlaşılınca, İngiliz yönetim çevrelerinde bölgeden geri çekilme tartışmaları ön plana çıktı. Tartışmalar, Irak devletinin kurulmasından sonra da devam etti. Tartışmaların temelinde, Kürt sorununun İngiltere'nin başını ağrıtmaya devam etmesi yatıyordu. Aynı yıl Türkiye'nin de soruna dâhil olması, sorunu İngiltere açısından daha içinden çıkılmaz bir hale getirdi. Fakat stratejik-ekonomik kaygı ve öncelikler, İngiltere'de Musul vilayetini muhafaza etme seçeneğinin ağırlık kazanmasını sağladı. Milletler Cemiyeti Konseyi'nin Musul'un geleceğiyle ilgili olarak, vilayetin İngiliz mandası altındaki Irak Devleti ile birleşmesini öngören nihai kararını açıklamasından sonra, İngiltere, Konsey'in çağrısına uyarak, Kürt halkının korunmasını güvence altına alan gerekli yönetsel önlemleri hayata geçirdi. Bu çerçevede, gelecekte bir Kürt devletinin oluşturulmasını sağlamak amacıyla bir Kürt ulusal kimliği inşa edildi. Yukarıda özetlenen süreç ve İngiltere'nin Kürt sorunuyla ilgili algısı, İngiliz, Osmanlı ve Irak arşiv malzemesi kullanılarak incelenmiştir.
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Yazar: İhsan Şerif KAYMAZ
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Bibtex @ { esosder82839, journal = {Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi}, issn = {1304-0278}, address = {Özel Akademi}, year = {2014}, volume = {12}, pages = {1 - 22}, doi = {}, title = {ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA DURING THE END OF WORLD WAR I /THE GREAT WAR}, language = {en}, key = {cite}, author = {KAYMAZ, İhsan Şerif} } @ { esosder82839, journal = {Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi}, issn = {1304-0278}, address = {Özel Akademi}, year = {2014}, volume = {12}, pages = {1 - 22}, doi = {}, title = {ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA DURING THE END OF WORLD WAR I /THE GREAT WAR}, language = {tr}, key = {cite}, author = {KAYMAZ, İhsan Şerif} }
APA KAYMAZ, İ . (2014). ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA DURING THE END OF WORLD WAR I /THE GREAT WAR. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 12 (47), 1-22. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/esosder/issue/6161/82839
MLA KAYMAZ, İ . "ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA DURING THE END OF WORLD WAR I /THE GREAT WAR". Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 12 (2014): 1-22 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/esosder/issue/6161/82839>
Chicago KAYMAZ, İ . "ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA DURING THE END OF WORLD WAR I /THE GREAT WAR". Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 12 (2014): 1-22
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