Year 2019, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 65 - 73 2019-03-27

Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan
Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan

Farida Anwar [1] , Karin Österman [2] , Kaj Björkqvist [3]

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Aim The study was aimed at investigating three types of sexual harassment in public places in Pakistan.

Method A questionnaire was completed by 543 female students in Pakistan (M = 22.3 years, SD 4.3). The questionnaire included scales for measuring physical, verbal, and nonverbal sexual harassment, and four scales measuring reactions to sexual harassment.

Results Sexual harassment was found to be most common in market places, and the perpetrator was typically a stranger. Nonverbal sexual harassment was the most frequent type. Only 2.8% of the respondents had never been victimised from any of the tree types of sexual harassment. The most common reaction of the victims was to run away. Respondents highly victimised from physical, verbal or nonverbal harassment scored higher than others on defensive reactions, immediate distress, and long-term negative concomitants. Educational level was not associated with the amount of victimisation from any type of sexual harassment, but respondents with a high education scored significantly higher on negative reactions to sexual harassment.

Conclusions Sexual harassment was associated with negative psychological concomitants for the victims. It can be concluded that sexual harassment in public places in Pakistan is a huge social problem that needs to be addressed.

Aim The study was aimed at investigating three types of sexual harassment in public places in Pakistan.

Method A questionnaire was completed by 543 female students in Pakistan (M = 22.3 years, SD 4.3). The questionnaire included scales for measuring physical, verbal, and nonverbal sexual harassment, and four scales measuring reactions to sexual harassment.

Results Sexual harassment was found to be most common in market places, and the perpetrator was typically a stranger. Nonverbal sexual harassment was the most frequent type. Only 2.8% of the respondents had never been victimised from any of the tree types of sexual harassment. The most common reaction of the victims was to run away. Respondents highly victimised from physical, verbal or nonverbal harassment scored higher than others on defensive reactions, immediate distress, and long-term negative concomitants. Educational level was not associated with the amount of victimisation from any type of sexual harassment, but respondents with a high education scored significantly higher on negative reactions to sexual harassment.

Conclusions Sexual harassment was associated with negative psychological concomitants for the victims. It can be concluded that sexual harassment in public places in Pakistan is a huge social problem that needs to be addressed.

  • PPID: JOCM-1086-6791-21
Primary Language en
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Original Research
Authors

Author: Farida Anwar (Primary Author)
Institution: Åbo Akademi University, Vasa
Country: Finland


Orcid: 0000-0003-0129-5683
Author: Karin Österman
Institution: Åbo Akademi University, Vasa
Country: Finland


Orcid: 0000-0002-4615-0747
Author: Kaj Björkqvist
Institution: Åbo Akademi University, Vasa
Country: Finland


Bibtex @research article { gopctd468324, journal = {Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2146-6009}, address = {Selcuk University}, year = {2019}, volume = {9}, pages = {65 - 73}, doi = {10.16899/gopctd.468324}, title = {Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan}, key = {cite}, author = {Anwar, Farida and Österman, Karin and Björkqvist, Kaj} }
APA Anwar, F , Österman, K , Björkqvist, K . (2019). Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan. Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi, 9 (1), 65-73. DOI: 10.16899/gopctd.468324
MLA Anwar, F , Österman, K , Björkqvist, K . "Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan". Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi 9 (2019): 65-73 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/gopctd/issue/44052/468324>
Chicago Anwar, F , Österman, K , Björkqvist, K . "Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan". Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi 9 (2019): 65-73
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan AU - Farida Anwar , Karin Österman , Kaj Björkqvist Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.16899/gopctd.468324 DO - 10.16899/gopctd.468324 T2 - Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 65 EP - 73 VL - 9 IS - 1 SN - -2146-6009 M3 - doi: 10.16899/gopctd.468324 UR - https://doi.org/10.16899/gopctd.468324 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan %A Farida Anwar , Karin Österman , Kaj Björkqvist %T Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan %D 2019 %J Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi %P -2146-6009 %V 9 %N 1 %R doi: 10.16899/gopctd.468324 %U 10.16899/gopctd.468324
ISNAD Anwar, Farida , Österman, Karin , Björkqvist, Kaj . "Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan". Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi 9 / 1 (March 2019): 65-73. https://doi.org/10.16899/gopctd.468324