Year 2018, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 85 - 94 2018-12-30

A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House
Ibsen’in Bir Bebek Evi Adlı Oyunundaki Cinsiyet İlişkilerine Kültürel Materyalist Bir Yaklaşım

Şebnem Düzgün [1]

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The Norwegian writer Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House (1879) explores gender relations which were fiercely debated in the late nineteenth century. The play deals mainly with the oppression of a bourgeois woman named Nora, who forges her father’s signature to save her husband’s life. Regarded as a member of the inferior sex, Nora is dominated by her patriarchal-minded husband Helmer. As she lacks socio-economic freedom to earn her own money, she is forced to obey the will of her husband, who imprisons her in the domestic sphere where she is degraded as an ignorant, inferior being who needs intellectual and moral guidance. Moreover, Helmer manipulates his position as a wage earner and treats Nora as an object that is to be possessed and controlled. Since Helmer benefits from his ‘superiority’ in terms of his gender and economic position, he represents both a domineering patriarch and a manipulative capitalist master. However, Nora is not depicted as a passive receiver of male domination for she develops counter discourses against her husband’s patriarchal discourses which focus on the inferiority of the female sex. Frustrated with the dominant moral and legal discourses of patriarchy that despise women, Nora decides to move from the restrictive domestic world to the outside world of power, money, and business. Her removal from the domestic sphere where she is expected to perform certain normative roles associated with the female sex is important in that it heralds women’s emancipation from male domination. The present study examines A Doll’s House from a cultural materialist perspective to argue that Nora’s departure from her husband’s house is not only a personal experience but a social challenge against the dominant patriarchal capitalist culture.

Norveçli yazar Henrik Ibsen’in Bir Bebek Evi (1879), on dokuzuncu yüzyılın sonlarında hararetle tartışılan toplumsal cinsiyet ilişkilerini irdeler. Oyun, esas olarak kocasının hayatını kurtarmak için babasının imzasını taklit eden Nora adındaki burjuva sınıfına mensup bir kadının baskıya maruz kalmasını ele alır. Alt seviyedeki bir cinsiyet grubunun üyesi olarak düşünülen Nora, ataerkil zihniyete sahip olan kocası Helmer tarafından yönetilir. Kendi parasını kazanmak için gereken sosyo-ekonomik özgürlükten yoksun olduğu için, kendisini eve hapsederek entelektüel ve ahlaki rehberliğe ihtiyacı olan cahil, aşağılık bir varlık olarak küçümseyen kocasının iradesine uymaya zorlanır. Dahası, Helmer para kazanan kişi rolünü kötüye kullanır ve Nora’ya sahiplenilmesi ve kontrol edilmesi gereken bir nesne olarak davranır. Helmer, cinsiyetinin ve ekonomik konumunun getirdiği ‘üstünlüğünden’ yararlandığı için hem otoriter bir erkeği hem de sömürücü kapitalist bir efendiyi temsil eder. Ancak, Nora, erkek egemenliğinin edilgen bir alıcısı olarak gösterilmemiştir; çünkü kadın cinsiyetinin yetersizliğine odaklanan kocasının ataerkil söylemlerine karşı söylemler geliştirir. Kadınları aşağılayan ataerkil toplumun baskın ahlaki ve hukuki söylemlerinden usanan Nora, kısıtlayıcı eve dair meselelerle dolu iç dünyadan gücün, paranın ve iş olanaklarının bulunduğu dış dünyaya geçmeye karar verir. Kadın cinsiyeti ile ilişkilendirilen belirli normatif rolleri gerçekleştirmesi beklenen ev ortamından ayrılması, kadınların erkek egemenliğinden kurtuluşunu müjdelemesi açısından önemlidir. Bu çalışma, Nora’nın kocasının evini terk edişinin sadece kişisel bir deneyim olmadığını aynı zamanda baskın ataerkil kapitalist kültüre karşı sosyal bir karşı çıkış olduğunu savunmak için Bir Bebek Evi’ni kültürel materyalist bir açıdan inceler.

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Primary Language en
Subjects Literature
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Şebnem Düzgün (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey


Bibtex @research article { huefd430480, journal = {Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1301-5737}, eissn = {2630-5976}, address = {Hacettepe University}, year = {2018}, volume = {35}, pages = {85 - 94}, doi = {10.32600/huefd.430480}, title = {A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House}, key = {cite}, author = {Düzgün, Şebnem} }
APA Düzgün, Ş . (2018). A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 35 (2), 85-94. DOI: 10.32600/huefd.430480
MLA Düzgün, Ş . "A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House". Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 35 (2018): 85-94 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/huefd/issue/41233/430480>
Chicago Düzgün, Ş . "A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House". Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 35 (2018): 85-94
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House AU - Şebnem Düzgün Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.32600/huefd.430480 DO - 10.32600/huefd.430480 T2 - Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 85 EP - 94 VL - 35 IS - 2 SN - 1301-5737-2630-5976 M3 - doi: 10.32600/huefd.430480 UR - https://doi.org/10.32600/huefd.430480 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Hacettepe University Journal of Faculty of Letters A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House %A Şebnem Düzgün %T A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House %D 2018 %J Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1301-5737-2630-5976 %V 35 %N 2 %R doi: 10.32600/huefd.430480 %U 10.32600/huefd.430480
ISNAD Düzgün, Şebnem . "A Cultural Materialist Approach to Gender Relations in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House". Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 35 / 2 (December 2019): 85-94. https://doi.org/10.32600/huefd.430480