Cilt 3, Sayı 2, Sayfalar 83 - 90 2017-06-28

Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review

Chijioke Okechukwu [1] , Olurotimi Akintunde Dahunsi [2] , Peter Kayode Oke [3] , Isiaka Oluwole Oladele [4] , Mohammed Dauda [5]

117 198

High manganese austenitic steel, popularly called “Hadfield steel” has dominated and played significant role in wear applications, especially in the mines and minerals industries since its invention over a century ago. A review on the researches on this steel revealed that its prominence in these fields is mainly due to its good combination of impact and abrasion wear resistance arising from its high toughness and high hardness respectively. Its strain hardening ability under impact loading is evidenced by increase in hardness as the material work hardens; this lowers the amount of wear in service. The work hardening property of the steel has been linked to governing mechanisms such as dislocation, deformation twinning, and dynamic strain ageing; also, it is enhanced by increase in carbon, ageing temperature and reduction in manganese content. Carbide precipitation along the grain boundaries and within the grains is the major cause of embrittlement of the steel. These carbides together with voids and porosities during casting solidification, improper heat treatment, overheating during welding, use of unsorted scrap metal and wrong wear application have been identified as the causes of premature failure in service. Hardfacing method has been proposed as a means of substituting the steel in wear applications, as alternative wear materials such as white cast iron and austempered ductile iron lack the combination of impact and abrasion resistance being offered by the Hadfield steel. 

Hadfield steel,wear,dominance,mining,minerals
  • Balogun S. A., Esezobor D. E. and Agunsoye J. O., Effect of melting temperature on wear characteristics of austenitic manganese steel, Journal of Minerals & Materials Characteristics & Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 277 – 289, 2008.
  • Allahkaram S. R., Causes of catastrophic failure of high Mn steel utilized as crusher overlaying shields, IJE Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 21, pp. 55 – 64, 2008.
  • Haakonsen F., Optimizing of Strømhard austenitic manganese steel, Doctoral Thesis submitted to the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2009.
  • Bhero S. W., Nyembe B. and Lentsoana K., “Common causes of premature failure of Hadfield steel crushers and hammers used in the mining industry”, International Conference on Mining, Mineral Processing and Metallurgical Engineering, ICMMME, Johannesburg, South Africa, pp. 174 -176, 2013.
  • Fadhila R., Jaharah A. G., Omar M. Z., Haron C. H. C., Ghazali M. J., et al., Austenite formation of steel – 3401 subjected to rapid cooling process, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Vol. 2, pp. 150 – 153, 2007.
  • Hai-lun Y., Jing-pei X, Ai-qin W., Wen-yan W. and Cheng, W., Plastic deformation wear in modified medium manganese steel, China Foundry, Vol. 4, pp. 194 – 197, 2007.
  • Efstathiou C. and Sehitoglu H., Strengthening Hadfield steel welds by nitrogen alloying, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 11, pp. 1 – 6, 2009.
  • Efstathiou, C. and Sehitoglu, H., Strain hardening and heterogeneous deformation during twinning in Hadfield steel, Acta Materialia, Vol. 58, pp. 1479 – 1488, 2010.
  • Hosseini S. and Limooei M. B., Optimization of heat treatment to obtain desired mechanical properties of high carbon Hadfield steels, World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 15, pp. 1421 – 1424, 2011.
  • Qichuan J., Zhenming H. and Yanping C. Influence of carbides and strain-induced martensite on wear resistance of austenitic medium manganese steels, Chin. J. Met. Sci. Technol., Vol. 5, pp. 268 – 272, 1989.
  • Mendez J., Ghoreshy M., Mackay W. B. F., Smith T. J. N., and Smith R. W., Weldability of austenitic manganese steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, pp. 596 – 602, 2004.
  • Xiaodong D., Guodon, S., Yifei W., Jianfeng W. and Haoyu y., Abrasion behaviour of high manganese steel under low impact energy and corrosive conditions, Advances in Tribology, doi: 10.1155/2009/685648, pp. 1 – 5, 2009.
  • Havliček P. and Bušová K., Experience with explosive hardening of railway frogs from Hadfield steel, Metal, Vol. 23, 2012.
  • Limooei M. B. and Hosseini S., Optimization of properties and structure with addition of titanium in Hadfield steels, Metal, Vol. 5, pp. 23 – 25, 2012.
  • Subhi A. D. and Abdulrazaq O. A., Phase transformations of Hadfield manganese steels. Eng. & Technology, Vol. 25, pp 808 – 814, 2007.
  • Safarian J. and Kolbeinsen L., Purity requirements for Mn-alloys for producing high manganese TRIP and TWIP steels, The Thirteenth International Ferroalloys Congress, Almaty, Kazakhstan, pp. 175 – 184, 2013.
  • Mahlami C. S. and Pan X., An overview on high manganese steel casting, 71st World Foundry Congress, Palacio Euskalduna, Bilbao. 19 – 21 May, 2014.
  • Owen W. S. and Grujicic, M., Strain aging of austenitic Hadfield manganese steel, Acta Materialia, Vol. 47, pp. 111 – 126, 1999.
  • Olawale J. O., Ibitoye S. A. and Shittu M. D., Work hardening behaviour and microstructural analysis of failed austenitic manganese steel crusher jaws, Materials Research, Vol. 16, pp. 1274 – 1281, 2013.
  • Chojecki A. and Telejko I., Cracks in high-manganese cast steel, Archives of Foundry Engineering, Vol. 9, pp. 17 – 22, 2009.
  • Chinella J. F., Processing and characterization of high strength, high ductility Hadfield steel, Unclassified Report submitted to U. S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts, 1990.
  • Harzallah R., Mouftiez A., Felder E., Hariri S. and Maujean J. –P., Rolling contact fatigue of Hadfield steel X120Mn12, Wear. Vol. 269, pp. 647 – 654, 2010.
  • Qian L., Feng X. and Zhang F. Deformed microstructure and hardness of Hadfield high manganese steel, Materials Transactions, Vol. 52, pp. 1623 – 1628, 2011.
  • Rittel D. and Roman I., Tensile fracture of coarse-grained cast austenitic manganese steels. Metallurgical Transactions A., Vol. 19A, pp. 2269 – 2277, 1988.
  • Canadinc D., Sehitoglu H., Maier H. J., Niklasch D. and Chumlyakov Y. I., Orientation evolution in Hadfield steel single crystals under combined slip and twinning, International Journals of Solids and Structures, Vol. 44, pp. 34 – 50, 2007.
  • Jingpei X., Qichuuan j., Zhenming H., Quanshun L. and Sommer K., Mechanism of work-hardening for austenitic manganese steel under non-severe impact loading conditions, Chin. J. Met. Sci. Technol., Vol. 8, pp 406 – 410, 1992.
  • Tsakiris V. and Edmonds D. V., Martensite and deformation twinning in austenitic steels, Materials Science and Engineering A, pp. 430 – 436, 1999.
  • Karaman I., Sehitoglu H., Beaudoin A. J., Chumlyakov Y. I., Maier H. J. et al., Modeling the deformation behaviour of Hadfield steel single and polycrystals due to twinning and slip, Acta Materialia, Vol. 48, pp. 2031 – 2047, 2000.
  • Norberg L., Fatigue properties of austenitic Mn-steel in explosion depth hardened condition, A Master Thesis submitted to the Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2010.
  • Zhang Y., Li Y., Han B., Zhang F. and Qian L., Microstructural characteristics of Hadfield steel solidified under high pressure. High Pressure Research: An International Journal, Vol. 3, pp. 634 – 639, 2011.
  • Grajcar A. and Borek W., Thermo-mechanical processing of high-manganese austenitic TWIP-type steels, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. VIII, pp. 29 – 38, 2008.
  • Subramanyam D. K., Swansieger A. E. and Avery H. S., Austenitic manganese steels, 10th Ed., Vol. 1, ASM Metal Handbook, American Society of Metals, pp. 822 – 840, 1990.
  • Hamada A. S., Karjalainen L. P. and Somani M. C., The influence of aluminium on hot deformation behaviour and tensile properties of high-Mn TWIP steels, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 467, pp. 114 – 124, 2007.
  • Dobrzański L. A., Grajcar A. and Borek W., Microstructure evolution and phase composition of high-manganese austenitic steels, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering,Vol. 31, pp. 218 – 225., 2008.
  • Scott C., Guelton N., Allain S. and Faral M., The development of a new Fe-Mn-C austenitic steel for automotive applications, Materials Science and Technology Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 127 – 138, 25 – 28 September 2005.
  • Curiel-Reyna E., Rojas-Rodriguez I., Terán J., Del- Real A., Lara-Guevar A., et al., Postcooling treatment impact on mechanical properties of welded Hadfield steel pieces. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Science, Vol. 5, pp. 105 – 110, 2014.
  • Kuljanic, E., Sortino, M., Totis, G. and Prosperi, F., Evaluation of commercial tools for machining special alloy Hadfield steel, Retrieved on May 27, 2017, from www.mech-ing.com/journal/Archive/2012/7/MTM/156_Sortino, pp 96 – 99.
  • Kopac, J., Hardening phenomena of Mn-austenite steels in the cutting process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 109, pp. 96 – 104, 2001.
  • Kivak, T., Uzun, G. and Ekici, E., An experimental and statistical evaluation of cutting parameters on the machinability of Hadfield steel, Gazi University Journal of Science, Vol. 29, pp. 9 – 17, 2016.
  • Armstrong, E., Cosler, A. S., and Katz, E. F., Machining of heated metals, Trans. Of the ASME, Vol. 73, pp. 35 – 43, 1951.
  • Cebron, M., Kosel, F, and Kopac, J., Effect of cutting on the surface hardness and residual stresses for 12Mn austenitic steel, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 55, pp. 80 – 89, 2012.
  • Dolinsek, S., Work-hardening in the drilling of austenitic stainless steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 133, pp. 63 – 70, 2003.
  • Çakir, O., Machining of Hadfield steel: an overview, 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering (ICAME2016), Proceeding Book, pp. 227 – 232, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, 11 – 13 May, 2016.
  • Potter, W. S., Method of machining manganese steel, United States Patent No. 1,018,001, 1912.
  • Pal, D. K. and Basu, S. K., Hot machining of austenitic manganese steel by shaping, International Journal of Machine Tool Design and Research, Vol. 11, pp. 45 – 61, 1971.
  • Çakir, O. and Altan, E., Hot Machining of high manganese steel: a review. 12th International Research/Expert Conference “Trends in the Development of Machinery and Associated Technology” TMT, Istanbul, Turkey, 26 – 30 August, 2008.
  • Horng, J. – T., Liu, N. – M., and Chiang, K. – T., Investigating the machinability evaluation of Hadfield steel in hard turning with Al2O3/TiC mixed ceramic tool based on the response surface methodology, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 208, pp. 532 – 541, 2008.
  • Skoczylas P., Krzyńska A. and Kacorowski M., The comparative studies of ADI versus Hadfield cast steel wear resistance, Archives of Foundry Engineering, Vol. 11, pp. 123 – 126, 2011.
Konular Mühendislik ve Temel Bilimler
Dergi Bölümü Articles
Yazarlar

Yazar: Chijioke Okechukwu
E-posta: okerex2002@yahoo.com
Ülke: Nigeria


Yazar: Olurotimi Akintunde Dahunsi
E-posta: oadahunsi@futa.edu.ng
Kurum: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Ülke: Nigeria


Yazar: Peter Kayode Oke
E-posta: okekayode2002@gmail.com
Kurum: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Ülke: Nigeria


Yazar: Isiaka Oluwole Oladele
E-posta: wolesuccess2000@yahoo.com
Kurum: Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Ülke: Nigeria


Yazar: Mohammed Dauda
E-posta: mdsmatt@gmail.com
Kurum: Advanced Manufacturing Technology Programme, P. M. B. 1174, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria
Ülke: Nigeria


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijet299068, journal = {International Journal of Engineering Technologies}, issn = {2149-0104}, address = {İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {3}, pages = {83 - 90}, doi = {10.19072/ijet.299068}, title = {Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review}, language = {en}, key = {cite}, author = {Oke, Peter Kayode and Dahunsi, Olurotimi Akintunde and Dauda, Mohammed and Oladele, Isiaka Oluwole and Okechukwu, Chijioke} }
APA Okechukwu, C , Dahunsi, O , Oke, P , Oladele, I , Dauda, M . (2017). Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review. International Journal of Engineering Technologies, 3 (2), 83-90. DOI: 10.19072/ijet.299068
MLA Okechukwu, C , Dahunsi, O , Oke, P , Oladele, I , Dauda, M . "Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review". International Journal of Engineering Technologies 3 (2017): 83-90 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/ijet/issue/30004/299068>
Chicago Okechukwu, C , Dahunsi, O , Oke, P , Oladele, I , Dauda, M . "Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review". International Journal of Engineering Technologies 3 (2017): 83-90
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review AU - Chijioke Okechukwu , Olurotimi Akintunde Dahunsi , Peter Kayode Oke , Isiaka Oluwole Oladele , Mohammed Dauda Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.19072/ijet.299068 DO - 10.19072/ijet.299068 T2 - International Journal of Engineering Technologies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 83 EP - 90 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - 2149-0104-2149-5262 M3 - doi: 10.19072/ijet.299068 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.19072/ijet.299068 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Engineering Technologies Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review %A Chijioke Okechukwu , Olurotimi Akintunde Dahunsi , Peter Kayode Oke , Isiaka Oluwole Oladele , Mohammed Dauda %T Prominence of Hadfield Steel in Mining and Minerals Industries: A Review %D 2017 %J International Journal of Engineering Technologies %P 2149-0104-2149-5262 %V 3 %N 2 %R doi: 10.19072/ijet.299068 %U 10.19072/ijet.299068