Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music
Klasik Yunan Müzik Sosyolojisine Doğru

Mark Griffith [1]

125 187

In this article I briefly survey, from a synchronic perspective, the various occasions on which music of one kind or another was played in archaic and classical Greece (ca. 750-320 BCE), and discuss the different social functions served by these performances and the various effects that they made (or were supposed to make) on their audiences. A sociology of ancient Greek music should look somewhat different from a history of that music, and different too from a purely philosophical/aesthetic or technical appreciation of that musical culture; and I attempt to include both etic and emic accounts of what music amounted to, what it did for people, who (i.e. members of which social groups and classes) performed the various different kinds of music, and who listened and/or responded in one way or another to these different kinds, and trying to assess what ordinary Greek people, as well as theorists and philosophers, thought about the role of music and musicians within their larger social and existential world. This article attempts to take due account of the “liveness” and corporeality of all Greek musical performance, and of its strong, but not uniform, affective impact. In particular, I focus on differences of gender, status, and ethnicity, and on the social functionalities of different musical idioms and instruments (strings, pipes, and percussion) that we can identify from our various sources, both literary and visual. Overall, I find Aristotle (especially in the Politics) to be the most helpful and reliable guide.

Bu makalede Arkaik ve Klasik Yunan tarihinde (MÖ yak. 750-320) çeşitli türden müziklerin icra edildiği farklı durumları eşsüremli bir bakış açısıyla kısaca gözden geçirerek, bu icraların farklı toplumsal işlevlerini ve dinleyicileri üzerinde bıraktığı (ya da bırakması beklenen) çeşitli etkilerini ve ayrıca Yunan kültürünün, bünyesindeki geniş ve çok yönlü müzikal faaliyetlerle ilgili farklı tavır ve değerlerini tartışacağım. Eski Yunan müziğine ilişkin bir sosyoloji bu müziğin tarihinden de, bu müzik kültürüyle ilgili salt felsefi/estetik ya da teknik anlayıştan da kısmen de olsa farklılık arz edecektir. Bu yüzden, gerçek anlamda sosyolojik bir incelemede müziğin neye tekabül ettiği ve insanların ne işine yaradığı, çeşitli türlerinin kimler tarafından icra edildiği, bu farklı türleri kimlerin dinlediği ve(ya) hangi tepkiyi verdiği, kuramcılar ve filozoflar kadar, sıradan Yunan halkının da daha geniş sosyal ve kozmolojik dünyaları bağlamında müzik hakkında ne düşündüğü, kültürün hem içinden hem dışından bakılarak araştırılmalıdır. Bu makale Yunan müzik performanslarının “anında icra” ve bedensellik yönünün yanı sıra biçim açısından çeşitli ama her durumda güçlü ruhsal etkisine de eğilerek, incelenmekte geç kalınmış bir konuyu ele almaktadır. Bilhassa toplumsal cinsiyet, statü ve etnisite farklılıkları, çeşitli müzik dillerinin ve çalgıların toplumsal işlevsellikleriyle ilgili muhtelif yazılı ve görsel kaynaklar bulunmakla birlikte, Aristoteles’in (özellikle de Politika eserinin) bu konularda en yararlı ve güvenilir kılavuz olduğu kanısındayız.

  • Anderson, W. B. (1966). Ethos and Education in Greek Music. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Aneziri, S. (2003). Die Vereine der dionysischen Techniten im Kontext der hellenistischen Gesellschaft. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
  • Arbo, A. & A. (2006). Les animaux sont-ils musiciens? In O. Mortier-Waldschmidt (Ed.), Musique et Antiquité [Actes du colloque... Amiens 2004] (pp. 209-243). Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
  • Barker, A. (1984). Greek Musical Writings, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Barker, A. (2005). Psicomusicologia nella Grecia Antica. Naples: Guida Editore.
  • Barker, A. (2012). The music of Olympus. In B. Gentili, (Ed.), Atti del Seminario Internazionale di Studio Poesia, canto, accompagnamento strumentale nel De musica attribuito a Plutarco (pp. 43-57) = Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 128 n.s. 99(3).
  • Bathrellou, E. (2012). Menander's Epitrepontes and the Festival of the Tauropolia. Classical Antiquity 31, 151-192.
  • Becker, J. (2001). Anthropological perspectives on music and emotion. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and Emotion: Theory and Research (pp. 135-160). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Becker, J. (2008). Deep Listeners. Music, Emotion, and Trancing. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • Bernays, J. (2015). Outlines of Aristotle's Lost Work on the Effects of Tragedy, section IV. (Trans. J. I. Porter, as Appendix). In J.
  • Billings & M. Leonard (Eds.), Tragedy and the Idea of Modernity (pp. 317-328). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Originally 1857, in German.]
  • Bicknell, J. (2009). Why Music Moves Us. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Billings, J. & Leonard, M. (Eds.). (2015). Tragedy and the Idea of Modernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Bobonich, C. (2002). Plato’s Utopia Recast. His Later Ethics and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1987). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. (Trans. R. Nice). Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1990). The Logic of Practice. (Trans. R. Nice). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Bremmer, J. N. (2014). Initiation into the Mysteries of the Ancient World. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter.
  • Brown, N. O. (1947). Hermes the Thief. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Budelmann, F. & Power, T. (2015). Another Look at Female Choruses in Classical Athens. Classical Antiquity 34, 252-295.
  • Bundrick, S. (2005). Music and Image in Classical Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bunt, L. and Pavlicevic, M. (2001). Music and Emotion: Perspectives from Music Therapy. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and Emotion: Theory and Research (pp. 181-201). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Burkert, W. (1984). Greek Religion. (Trans. J. Raffan). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Burkert, W. (1987). The Making of Homer in the 6th Century BC: Rhapsodes vs Stesichorus. In Papers on the Amasis Painter and His World (pp. 43–62). Malibu: Getty Museum Publications.
  • Butler, S. & Purves, A. (Eds.). (2013). Synaesthesia and the Ancient Senses. Durham: Acumen.
  • Calame, C. (1997). Choruses of Young Women in Ancient Greece. (Trans. D. Collins & J. Orion). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Campbell, D. A. (Ed. and Trans.). (1988). Greek Lyric, Vol. 2. Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Caston, V. (2005). The Spirit and the Letter: Aristotle on Perception. In R. Salles (Ed.), Metaphysics, Soul, and Ethics in Ancient Thought (pp. 245-320). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Chadwick, N. K. (1952). Poetry and Prophecy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Clay, J. S. (2006). The Politics of Olympus. Form and Meaning in the Major Homeric Hymns. 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Comotti, G. (1989). Music in Greek and Roman Culture. (Trans. R. V. Munson). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Csapo, E. & Slater, W. J. (1995). The Context of Ancient Drama. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press.
  • Csapo, E. (2004). The Politics of the New Music. In P. Murray & P. Wilson (Eds.), Music and the Muses. The Culture of Mousike in the Classical Athenian City (pp. 207-248). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • D’Angour, A. (2011). The Greeks and the New. Novelty in Ancient Greek Imagination and Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Davies, S. (2003). Music. In J. Levinson (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics (pp. 489-515). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F. (1987). A Thousand Plateaus. (Trans. B. Massumi). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • , J. (1975). Magic and Rhetoric in Ancient Greece. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Detienne, M. (1996). The Masters of Truth in Ancient Greece. 2nd ed., (Trans. J. Lloyd). New York: Zone Books.
  • Dreizehnter, A. (1970). Aristoteles’ Politik. Munich: Wilhelm Fink.
  • Easterling, P. E. & Hall, E. (Eds.). (2002). Greek and Roman Actors. Aspects of an Ancient Profession. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Feld, S. (1990). Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Ford, A. (2003). The Origins of Criticism: Literary Culture and Poetic Theory in Classical Greece. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Foster, S. L. (1986). Reading Dancing: Bodies and Subjects in Contemporary American Dance. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Franklin, J. C. (2002). Musical Syncretism and the Greek Orientalizing Period. In E. Hickmann & R. Eichmann (Eds.), Studien zur Musikarchäologie 3, Orient-Archäologie 10, (pp. 441-451). Rahden Westf: VML Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH.
  • Furley, D. (1993). Besprechung und Behandlung: Zur Form und Funktion von Epôidai in der griechischen Zaubermedizin. In G. W. Most et al. (Eds.), Philanthropia kai Eusebeia. Festschrift für Albrecht Dihle (pp. 80-104). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. <needs to be makron? MG>
  • Gentili, B. & Pretagostini, R. (Eds.). (1988). La musica in Grecia. Rome: Editori Laterza.
  • Gentili, B. (Ed.). (2012). Atti del Seminario Internazionale di Studio Poesia, canto, accompagnamento strumentale nel De musica attribuito a Plutarco = Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 128 n.s. 99(3).
  • Goldman, M. L. (2015). Associating the Aulētris: Flute Girls and Prostitutes in the Classical Greek Symposium. Helios 42, 29-60.
  • Gostoli, A. (1995). L'armonia frigia nei progetti politico-pedagogici di Platone e Aristotele. In B. Gentili & F. Perusino (Eds.), Mousiké. metrica, ritmica e musica greca in memoria di G. Comotti (pp. 133-144). Pisa & Rome: Instituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali.
  • Griffith, M. (2001). Public and Private in Early Greek Education. In Y. L. Too (Ed.), Education in Greek and Roman Antiquity (pp. 23-84). Leiden, Boston & Köln: Brill.
  • Griffith, M. (forthcoming in 2018). Is Korybantic Performance a ‘Lyric Genre’? In M. Foster, L. Kurke, & N. Weiss (Eds.), The Genres of Archaic and Classical Greek Poetry. Leiden: Brill.
  • Griffith, M. (in progress). Music and Difference in Ancient Greece.
  • Gurd, S. (2016). Dissonance: Auditory Aesthetics in Ancient Greece. New York: Fordham University Press.
  • Hagel, S. (2005). Is nid qabli Dorian? Tuning and Modality in Greek and Hurrian Music. Baghdader Mitteilungen 36, 287-348.
  • Hagel, S. (2010). Ancient Greek Music. A New Technical History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hagel, S. (n.d.). The Aulos. Retrieved from https://www.oeaw.ac.at/kal/agm/index.htm
  • Hall, E. (1999). Actor’s Song in Greek Tragedy. In S. Goldhill & R. Osborne (Eds.), Performance Culture and Athenian Democracy (pp. 96-122). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hall, E. 2002. The Singing Actors of Antiquity. In P. E. Easterling & E. Hall (Eds.), Greek and Roman Actors. Aspects of an Ancient Profession (pp. 3-38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Halliwell, S. (1998). Aristotle's Poetics. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Halliwell, S. (2002). The Aesthetics of Mimesis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Halliwell, S. (2011). Between Ecstasy and Truth. Interpretations of Greek Poetics from Homer to Longinus. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hardie, A. (2004). Music and Mysteries. In P. Murray & P. Wilson (Eds.), Music and the Muses. The Culture of Mousike in the Classical Athenian City (pp. 11-37). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hemberg, B. (1950). Die Kabiren. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksells.
  • Hicks, R. D. (Ed.). (1907). Aristotle De Anima. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Jeanmaire, H. (1939). Couroi et Courètes. Lille: Bibliothèque Universitaire.
  • Jeanmaire, H. (1949). Le traitement de la mania dans les Mystères de Dionysos et des Corybantes. Journal de Psychologie, 64-82 Juslin, P. N. & Sloboda, J. A. (Eds.). (2001). Music and Emotion: Theory and Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Keil, C. & Feld, S. (1994). Music Grooves. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Kidd, S. E. (2016). Play in Aristotle. Classical Philology 111, 353-371.
  • Kivy, P. (1989). Sound Sentiment: An Essay on the Musical Emotions. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  • Kivy, P. (1990). Music Alone: Philosophical Reflections on the Purely Musical Experience. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Kolotourou, K. (2011). Musical Rhythms from the Cradle to the Grave. In M. Haystom & J. Wallensten (Eds.), Current Approaches to Religion in Ancient Greece (pp. 169-188). Stockholm: Svenska Institutet i Athen.
  • Kotsidu, H. (1991). Die musische Agone der Panathenäen in archaischer und klassischer Zeit. Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag.
  • Kowalzig, B. (2007). Singing for the Gods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kowalzig, B. & Wilson, P. (Eds.). (2013). Dithyramb in Context. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Krause, B. (2016). Wild Soundscapes: Discovering the Voice of the Natural World. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Kraut, R. (Ed., Trans. & Comm.). (1997). Aristotle. Politics Books 7-8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kroodsma, D. (2005). The Singing Life of Birds. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Lachenaud, G. (2013). Les routes de la voix. L’Antiquité grecque et le mystère de la voix. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
  • Le Guen, B. (2001). Les Associations de Technites dionysiaques à l'époque hellénistique. 2 vols. Nancy: Association pour la Diffusion de la Recherche sur l'Antiquité.
  • LeVen, P. (2014). The Many-headed Muse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Levitin, D. (2004). This is your Brain on Music. The Science of a Human Obsession. New York: Dutton.
  • Linforth, I. (1946). The Corybantic Rites in Plato. In University of California Publications in Classical Philology 13(5), (pp. 121-62). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Lonsdale, S. (1993). Dance and Ritual Play in Greek Religion. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Lord, C. (1982). Education and Culture in the Political Thought of Aristotle. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Lucas, D. W. (Ed.). (1968). Aristotle. Poetics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Maas, M. & Snyder, J. M. (1989). Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
  • Manieri, A. (2009). Agoni poetico-musicali nella Grecia antica 1. Beozia. Pisa and Rome: Fabrizio Serra editore.
  • Marler, P. & Slabbekoorn, H. (Eds.). (2004). Nature’s Music. The Science of Birdsong. London: Elsevier.
  • Marrou, H. (1956). A History of Education in Antiquity. (Trans. G. Lamb). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Martin, R. P. (2003). The Pipes are Brawling: Conceptualizing Musical Performance in Classical Athens. In C. Dougherty & L. V. Kurke (Eds.), The Cultures within Ancient Greek Culture (pp. 153-180). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mathiesen, T. J. (1999). Apollo's Lyre: Greek Music and Music Theory in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • McCoskey, D. E. (2012). Race: Antiquity and its Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Merriam, A. P. (1964). The Anthropology of Music. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
  • Meyer, L. (1956). Emotion and Meaning in Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Mullen, W. (1983). Choreia. Pindar and Dance. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Murray, P. & Wilson, P. (Eds.). (2004). Music and the Muses. The Culture of Mousike in the Classical Athenian City. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Murray, P. (2015). Poetic Inspiration. In P. Destrée & P. Murray (Eds.), A Companion to Ancient Aesthetics (pp. 158-74). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Naerebout, F. (1997). Attractive Performances: Ancient Greek Dance. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben.
  • Nagy, G. (1990). Pindar’s Homer. The Lyric Possession of an Epic Past. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Nagy, G. (2016). Genre and Occasion. Mètis: Anthropologie des mondes grecs anciens 9–10, 11–25. Revised version retrieved from: https://chs.harvard.edu/CHS/article/display/4322
  • Nettl, B. (2005). The Study of Ethnomusicology. 2nd ed., Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Newman, W. L. (1902). The Politics of Aristotle, Vol. 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Olsen, S. (2017). Kinesthetic Choreia: Empathy, Memory, and Dance in Ancient Greece. Classical Philology 112, 1-22.
  • Panegyres, K. (2017). The Ethnic Elements of Greek Music. Transactions of the American Philological Association 147, 235-319.
  • Patel, A. (2008). Music, Language and the Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Pelosi, F. (2010). Plato on Music, Soul and Body. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Peponi, A.-E. (2009). Choreia and Aesthetics in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo. Classical Antiquity 28, 39-70.
  • Peponi, A.-E. (2012). Frontiers of Pleasure: Models of Aesthetic Response in Archaic and Classical Greek Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Peponi, A.-E. (Ed.). (2013). Performance and Culture in Plato’s Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pfister, F. (1924). Epode. Pauly RE Supp. 4: 323-44.
  • Poerner, J. (1913). De Curetibus et Corybantibus. Heidelberg: Universitäts-Bibliothek Heidelberg.
  • Porter, J. I. (2010). The Origins of Aesthetic Thought in Ancient Greece: Matter, Sensation, and Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Porter, J. I. (2013). Why Are There Nine Muses? In S. Butler & A. Purves (Eds.), Synesthesia and the Ancient Senses (pp. 9-26). London: Acumen Publishing.
  • Porter, J. I. (2015). Jacob Bernays and the Katharsis of Modernity. In J. Billings & M. Leonard (Eds.), Tragedy and the Idea of Modernity (pp. 15-41). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Porter, J. I. (2016). The Sublime in Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Power, T. (2010). The Culture of Kitharoidia. Washington, DC: Harvard University Press.
  • Prauscello, L. (2006). Singing Alexandria: Music between Practice and Textual Transmission. Leiden: Brill.
  • Prauscello, L. (2014). Performing Citizenship in Plato’s Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rosenmeyer, P. (2004). Girls at Play in Early Greek Poetry. American Journal of Philology 125, 163-178.
  • Ross, W. D. (Ed.). (1957). Aristotelis Politica. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Ross, W. D. (Ed.). (1961). Aristotle De Anima. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Rotstein, A. (2012). Mousikoi Agones and the Conceptualization of Genre in Ancient Greece. Classical Antiquity 31, 92-127.
  • Rouget, G. (1985). Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relations between Music and Possession. 2nd. ed. (Trans. G. Rouget, Rev. B. Biebuyck). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Salimpoor, V. et al. (2011). Anatomically Distinct Dopamine Release during Anticipation and Experience of Peak Emotion to Music. Nature Neuroscience 14, 257–262.
  • Schafer, R. M. (1994). The Tuning of the World. Rochester: Destiny Books.
  • Schuol, M. (2004). Hethitische Kultmusik (Orient-Archäologie 14). Rahden/Westfalen: Marie Leidorf.
  • Scullion, S. (n.d.). Mainads and Men. Retrieved from http://www.classics.ox.ac.uk/tl_files/Downloads/Maenads-and-Men.pdf Shields, C. (Ed. & Trans.). (2016). Aristotle De Anima. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sifakis, G. (2001). Aristotle on the Function of Tragic Poetry. Herakleion: Crete University Press.
  • Small, C. (1998). Musicking. The Meanings of Performing and Listening. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
  • Stefanis, L. (1988). Διονυσιακοὶ Τεχνῖται. Ηρακλειο: Πανεπιστημιακες Εκδοσεις Κρητης.
  • Stehle, E. (1997). Performance and Gender in Ancient Greece. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Stewart, E. (2016). Professionalism and the Poetic Persona in Archaic Greece. Cambridge Classical Journal 62, 200-233.
  • Ustinova, Y. (1992-1996). Corybantism: The Nature and Role of an Ecstatic Cult in the Greek Polis. Horos 10-12, 503-520.
  • Walker, R. (1990). Musical Beliefs. Psychoacoustic, Mythical, and Educational Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Teachers College Press.
  • Wallace, R. (2005). Performing Damon's harmoniai. In S. Hagel & C. Harrauer (Eds.), Ancient Greek Music in Performance (pp. 147-57). Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
  • Wallin, N. L., Merker, B. & Brown S. (Eds.). (2000). The Origins of Music. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
  • Walsh, G. (1984). The Varieties of Enchantment. Early Greek Views of the Nature and Functions of Poetry. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Weiss, N. A. (forthcoming in 2018). The Music of Tragedy. Performance and Imagination in Euripidean Theater. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • West, M. L. (1981). The Singing of Homer and the Modes of Early Greek Music. Journal of Hellenic Studies 101, 113-129.
  • West, M. L. (1992). Ancient Greek Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Wilkinson, L. P. (1938). Philodemus on Ethos in Music. Classical Quarterly 32, 174-181.
  • Wilson, P. (1999). The Aulos in Athens. In S. Goldhill & R. Osborne, (Eds.), Performance Culture and Athenian Democracy (pp. 58-95). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, P. (2000). The Athenian Institution of the khorēgia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, P. (2007). Pronomos and Potamon: Two Pipers and Two Epigrams. Journal of Hellenic Studies 127, 141-149.
  • Winnington-Ingram, R. P. & Higgins, R. (1965). Lute Players in Greek Art. Journal of Hellenic Studies 85, 62-71.
  • Yinger, O. S. (2017). Music Therapy: Research and Evidence-Based Practice. London: Elsevier.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Sosyoloji
Dergi Bölümü Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Mark Griffith
Ülke: United States


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { iusosyoloji397672, journal = {İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi}, issn = {1304-2998}, eissn = {2148-9165}, address = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {}, volume = {37}, pages = {211 - 258}, doi = {}, title = {Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music}, key = {cite}, author = {Griffith, Mark} }
APA Griffith, M . (). Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 37 (2), 211-258. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/iusosyoloji/issue/35702/397672
MLA Griffith, M . "Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music". İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 37 (): 211-258 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/iusosyoloji/issue/35702/397672>
Chicago Griffith, M . "Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music". İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 37 (): 211-258
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music AU - Mark Griffith Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 211 EP - 258 VL - 37 IS - 2 SN - 1304-2998-2148-9165 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music %A Mark Griffith %T Towards a Sociology of Classical Greek Music %D 2018 %J İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi %P 1304-2998-2148-9165 %V 37 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Griffith, Mark . "Klasik Yunan Müzik Sosyolojisine Doğru". İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 37 / 2 211-258.