Scientific concepts are
the building blocks of scientific thought and science communication. Therefore,
to achieve scientific literacy it is necessary to construct and define the
concepts accurately. In this study, the concept of friction force, which is frequently
encountered in science textbooks, is discussed. The explanations of the concept
in science textbooks have been found to be inadequate in effectively explaining
several situations. To address this issue, this study aimed to examine the
concept of friction force in the textbooks and to propose a more comprehensive definition.
The study was conducted using the document analysis method. A total of 26
resource books (11 university physics textbooks, 4 science-term glossaries, 2
secondary school physics textbooks, 6 middle school science textbooks, and 3
popular science textbooks) were analyzed in the study. Several inconsistencies
in the explanations for the concept of friction force were found. Based on the
analysis, a more comprehensive definition was proposed to fully and
consistently explain the effects and the direction of friction force.
Textbooks, Friction force, Science education