Cilt 67, Sayı 2, Sayfalar 136 - 149 2017-04-04

Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği
Forest mapping against rockfalls on a regional scale in Inebolu-Turkey

Abdurrahim Aydın [1] , Remzi Eker [2]

141 100

Forest mapping against rockfalls on a regional scale in Inebolu-Turkey

Abstract: Determining areas where forest plantations provide protection against rockfall is significant in the prevention of disasters. In this paper, a case study is conducted in the Özlüce Forest District of İnebolu, Turkey. Potential rockfall source areas are firstly calculated and mapped via RollFree, which uses a digital elevation model as the only input. The rockfall travel distance is then identified using an empirical energy line angle to create propagation maps for different scenarios (using a set of four angles: 28°, 32°, 35°, and 38°). By marking the lower boundaries of propagation, the maximum run-out zone of a fallen block is determined as having a very low, low, medium, or high probability of occurrence (marking the lower boundaries of propagation). These propagation maps are then overlapped with a forest stand map to define areas where the forest provides a protective function against rockfall. According to propagation maps that indicate a high probability of occurrence, only 9% of the total forest area is found to be capable of playing a protective role, whereas for those determined as having a low probability of occurrence, 17% of the forest area provides a protective function.

Keywords: Energy line angle, protection forest, rockfall, rockfall propagation map

Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği

Özet: Kaya yuvarlanmalarına karşı potansiyel koruyucu ormanların belirlenmesi, önemli ölçüde koruma sağladıkları için son derece önemlidir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda Özlüce Orman İşletme Şefliği’nde (İnebolu, Türkiye) örnek bir çalışma gerçekleştirilmiştir. İlk olarak potansiyel kaya yuvarlanması kaynak bölgeleri (PKYKB), tek bir girdi olarak Sayısal Yükseklik Modeli (SYM) kullanan RollFree yazılımı ile belirlenerek haritalanmıştır. Daha sonra, çok düşük (düşük yayılım sınırlarını gösteren), düşük, orta ve yüksek şeklinde sınıflandırılan maksimum birikme bölgesi olası sınırlarını elde etmek için farklı senaryolarda, yani dört farklı enerji hattı açısı (28°, 32°, 35° and 38°) için kaya blokları yayılım haritalarının oluşturulmasında ampirik enerji hattı açısı (EHA) yaklaşımı ile düşen kaya bloklarının hareket mesafelerin tespiti ile elde edilmiştir. Kaya yuvarlanmasına karşı koruyucu fonksiyona sahip orman alanlarının belirlenmesi için üretilen kaya yuvarlanması yayılım haritaları meşcere haritası ile çakıştırılmıştır. Yüksek olasılıklı yayılım haritalarına göre toplam ormanlık alanın sadece %9’u kaya yuvarlanmasına karşı koruyucu fonksiyon görürken, çok düşük olasılıklı yayılım haritasına göre ormanlık alanların %17’si koruyucu fonksiyon görmektedir. 

Anahtar kelimeler: Enerji hattı açısı, koruma ormanı, kaya yuvarlanması, kaya yuvarlanması yayılım haritası

Received (Geliş): 27.12.2016 - Revised (Düzeltme): 08.03.2017 -   Accepted (Kabul): 28.03.2017

Cite (Atıf):  Aydin, A., Eker, R., 2017. Forest mapping against rockfalls on a regional scale in Inebolu of Turkey. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University 67(2): 136-149. DOI: 10.17099/jffiu.281710
Forest mapping against rockfalls on a regional scale in Inebolu-Turkey

Abstract: Determining areas where forest plantations provide protection against rockfall is significant in the prevention of disasters. In this paper, a case study is conducted in the Özlüce Forest District of İnebolu, Turkey. Potential rockfall source areas are firstly calculated and mapped via RollFree, which uses a digital elevation model as the only input. The rockfall travel distance is then identified using an empirical energy line angle to create propagation maps for different scenarios (using a set of four angles: 28°, 32°, 35°, and 38°). By marking the lower boundaries of propagation, the maximum run-out zone of a fallen block is determined as having a very low, low, medium, or high probability of occurrence (marking the lower boundaries of propagation). These propagation maps are then overlapped with a forest stand map to define areas where the forest provides a protective function against rockfall. According to propagation maps that indicate a high probability of occurrence, only 9% of the total forest area is found to be capable of playing a protective role, whereas for those determined as having a low probability of occurrence, 17% of the forest area provides a protective function.

Keywords: Energy line angle, protection forest, rockfall, rockfall propagation map

Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği

Özet: Kaya yuvarlanmalarına karşı potansiyel koruyucu ormanların belirlenmesi, önemli ölçüde koruma sağladıkları için son derece önemlidir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda Özlüce Orman İşletme Şefliği’nde (İnebolu, Türkiye) örnek bir çalışma gerçekleştirilmiştir. İlk olarak potansiyel kaya yuvarlanması kaynak bölgeleri (PKYKB), tek bir girdi olarak Sayısal Yükseklik Modeli (SYM) kullanan RollFree yazılımı ile belirlenerek haritalanmıştır. Daha sonra, çok düşük (düşük yayılım sınırlarını gösteren), düşük, orta ve yüksek şeklinde sınıflandırılan maksimum birikme bölgesi olası sınırlarını elde etmek için farklı senaryolarda, yani dört farklı enerji hattı açısı (28°, 32°, 35° and 38°) için kaya blokları yayılım haritalarının oluşturulmasında ampirik enerji hattı açısı (EHA) yaklaşımı ile düşen kaya bloklarının hareket mesafelerin tespiti ile elde edilmiştir. Kaya yuvarlanmasına karşı koruyucu fonksiyona sahip orman alanlarının belirlenmesi için üretilen kaya yuvarlanması yayılım haritaları meşcere haritası ile çakıştırılmıştır. Yüksek olasılıklı yayılım haritalarına göre toplam ormanlık alanın sadece %9’u kaya yuvarlanmasına karşı koruyucu fonksiyon görürken, çok düşük olasılıklı yayılım haritasına göre ormanlık alanların %17’si koruyucu fonksiyon görmektedir. 

Anahtar kelimeler: Enerji hattı açısı, koruma ormanı, kaya yuvarlanması, kaya yuvarlanması yayılım haritası

Received (Geliş): 27.12.2016 - Revised (Düzeltme): 08.03.2017 -   Accepted (Kabul): 28.03.2017

Cite (Atıf):  Aydin, A., Eker, R., 2017. Forest mapping against rockfalls on a regional scale in Inebolu of Turkey. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University 67(2): 136-149. DOI: 10.17099/jffiu.281710
  • Albisetti, A.D.K., Brang, P., Schönenberger, W., Bugmann, H., 2003. Decay of Picea abies snag stands on steep mountain slopes. The Forestry Chronicle 79: 247-252.
  • Aydın, A., Köse, N., Akkemik, Ü., Yurtseven, H., 2012. Assessment and analysis of rockfall-caused tree injuries in a Turkish fir stand: A case study from Kastamonu-Turkey. Journal of Mountain Science 9:137-146.
  • Bebi, P., Kienast, F., Schönenberger, W., 2001. Assessing structures in mountain forests as a basis for investigating the forests’ dynamics and protective function. Forest Ecology and Management 145: 3-14.
  • Berger, F., Quetel, C., Dorren, L.K.A., 2002. Forest: a natural protection means against rockfalls, but with which efficiency? In: Proceedings of the International Congress Interpraevent 2002, Proceedings book Vol 2:815-826, Pacific Rim-Matsumoto, Japan.
  • Berger, F., Rey, F., 2004. Mountain protection forests against natural hazards and risks: new French developments by integrating forests in risk zoning. Natural Hazards 33: 395-404.
  • Berger, F., Dorren, L.K.A., 2007. Principles of the tool Rockfor.net for quantifying the rockfall hazard below a protection forest. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 6:157-165.
  • Berger, F., Clouet, N., Toe, D., 2012. Avalanches and rockfall regional analysis with a special focus on protective role of forest. In: Tacnet, JM, editor. Decision support guidelines methods, procedures and tools developed in PARAmount (WP 7). IRSTEA, UR ETGR (Snow Avalanches Engineering and Torrent Control Research Unit), 2 Rue de la Papeterie BP 76, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères, France.
  • Berger, F., Dorren, L., Kleemayr, K., Maier, B., Planinsek, S., Bigot, C., Bourrier, F., Jancke, O., Toe, D., Cerbu, G., 2013. Eco-Engineering and Protection Forests against Rockfalls and Snow Avalanches. In: Cerbu G, editor. Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks. ISBN: 978-953-51-1194-8, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/56275.
  • Bigot, C., Dorren, L.K.A., Berger, F., 2009. Quantifying the protective function of a forest against rockfall for past, present and future scenarios using two modelling approaches. Natural Hazards 49: 99-111.
  • Brang, P., 2001. Resistance and elasticity: promising concepts for the management of protection forests in the European Alps. Forest Ecology and Management 145: 107-119.
  • Brang, P., Schönenberger, W., Ott, E., Gardner, B., 2001. Forests as protection from natural hazards. In: Evans J, editor. The forests handbook, Vol. 2: Applying forest science for sustainable management. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, pp. 53–81.
  • Brang, P., Schönenberger, W., Frehner, M., Schwitter, R., Thormann, J.J., Wasser, B., 2006. Management of protection forests in the European Alps: An overview. Forest Snow and Landscape Research 80: 23-44.
  • Brauner, M., Weinmeister, W., Agner, P., Vospernik, S., Hoesle, B., 2005. Forest management decision support for evaluating forest protection effects against rockfall. Forest Ecology and Management 207: 75-85.
  • Clouet, N., Berger, F., Lievois, J., 2012. Rockfall Modelling and Risk Zoning: A Case Study in the French Alps Using Geomatics, Airborne Laser Scanning, 2D&3D Runout Models. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress Interpraevent, pp. 479-486.
  • Copons, R., Vilaplana, J.M., 2008. Rockfall susceptibility zoning at a large scale: from geomorphological inventory to preliminary land use planning. Engineering Geology 102: 142-151.
  • Copons, R., Vilaplana, J.M., Linares, R., 2009. Rockfall travel distance analysis by using empirical models (Sola dra la Vella, Central Pyrenees). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9: 2107-2118.
  • Corominas, J., Copons, R., Vilaplana, J.M., Altimir, J., Amigó, J., 2003. From landslide hazard assessment to management. The Andorran experience. In: Picarelli L, editor. Fast Slope Movements: Prediction and Prevention for Risk Mitigation. Bologna, Italy: Pàtron Editore, pp. 111–118.
  • Crosta, G.B., Agliardi, F., Frattini, P., Imposimato, S., 2004. A three-dimensional hybrid numerical model for rockfall simulation. Geophysical Research Abstracts 6: 04502.
  • Cruden, D.M., Varnes, D.J., 1996. Landslide types and processes. In: Turner AK, Schuster RL, editors. Landslides investigation and mitigation, Special Report 247. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press.
  • Dorren, L.K.A., 2003. A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches. Progress in Physical Geography 27: 69-87.
  • Dorren, L.K.A., 2016. Rockyfor3D (v5.2) Revealed-Transparent Description of the Complete 3D Rockfall Model. Geneva, Switzerland: Association ecorisQ, p.32.
  • Dorren L.K.A., Seijmonsbergen, A.C., 2003. Comparison of three GIS-based models for predicting rockfall runout zones at a regional scale. Geomorphology 56: 49-64.
  • Dorren., L.K.A., Maier, B., Putters, U.S., Seinjmonsbergen, A.C., 2004a. Combining field and modelling techniques to assess rockfall dynamics on a protection forest hillslope in the European Alps. Geomorphology 57: 151-167.
  • Dorren, L.K.A., Berger, F., Imeson, A.C., Maier, B., Rey, F. 2004b. Integrity, stability and management of protection forests in the Alps. Forest Ecology Management 195: 165-176.
  • Dorren, L.K.A., Berger, F., Le, Hir C., Mermin, E., Tardif, P., 2005. Mechanisms, effects and management implications of rockfall in forests. Forest Ecology Management 15: 183-195.
  • Dorren, L.K.A., Berger, F., 2006a. Panarchy and sustainable risk prevention by managing protection forests in mountain areas. In: Ammann WJ, Dannenman S, Vulliet I, editors. Risk 21: coping with risks due to natural hazards in the 21st century. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, pp.203-213.
  • Dorren, L.K.A., Berger, F., 2006b. Stem breakage of trees and energy dissipation during rockfall impacts. Tree Physiology 26: 63-71.
  • Dorren, L.K.A., Domaas, U., Kronholm, K., Labiouse, V., 2013. Methods for predicting rockfall trajectories and run- out zones. In: Lambert S, Nicot F, editors. Rockfall engineering. London, UK: ISTE Ltd./John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp. 143-173.
  • European Communities, 1996. Protocol on the implementation of the Alpine convention relating to mountain forests. Mountain Forests Protocol http://www.alpconv.org/en/convention/protocols/Documents/protokoll_bergwaldGB.pdf
  • Frehner, M., Wasser, B., Schwitter, R., 2005. Nachhaltigkeit und Erfolgskontrolle im Schutzwald. Wegleitung für Pflegemassnahmen in Waldern mit Schutzfunktion. BUWAL, CH-303 Bern.
  • Gauquelin, X., Courbaud, B., 2006. Guide des sylvicultures de montagne: alpes du Nord Françaises. Grenoble, France: Cemagref ONF.
  • Guzzetti, F., Crosta, G., Detti, R., Agliardi, F., 2002. STONE: a computer program for three-dimensional simulation of rock-falls. Computers and Geosciences 28: 1079-1093.
  • Heim, A., 1932. Bergsturtz und Menschenleben. Zurich, Switzerland Fretz und Wasmuth, 218 pp.
  • Hsü, K.J., 1975. Catastrophic debris streams (Sturzstroms) generated by rockfalls. Geological Society of America Bulletin 86: 129–40.
  • Jaboyedoff, M., Labiouse, V., 2011. Technical Note: Preliminary estimation of rockfall runout zones. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 11: 819-828. Jones R., 2002. Algorithms for using a DEM for mapping catchment areas of stream sediment samples. Computers and Geosciences 28 (9): 1051–1060.
  • Kajdiz, P., Diaci, J., Rebernik, J., 2015. Forests Modelling facilitates silvicultural decision-making for improving the mitigation effect of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dominated alpine forest against rockfall. Forests 6: 2178-2198.
  • Krauchi, N., Brang, P., Schönenberger, W., 2000. Forests of mountainous regions: gaps in knowledge and research needs. Forest Ecology and Management 132: 73-82.
  • Larcher, V., Simoni, S., Pasquazzo, R., Strada, C., Zampedri, G., Berger, F., 2012. Rockfall and Forecast systems WP6 guidelines, PARAmount.
  • Lied, K., 1977. Rockfall problems in Norway. In: Rockfall Dynamics and protective work effectiveness. ISMES, Bergamo 90: 51-53.
  • Meissl, G., 1998. Modelierung der Reichweite von Felsstürzen. Fallbeispiele zur GISgestützen Gefahrenbeurteilung aus dem Beierischen und Tiroler Alpenraum. PhD, Universitat Insbruck, p. 249.
  • Michoud, C., Derron, M.H., Horton, P., Jaboyedoff, M., Baillifard, F.J., Loye, A., Nicolet, P., Pedrazzani, A., Queyrel, A., 2012. Rockfall hazard and risk assessment along roads at a regional scale: example in Swiss Alps. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 12: 615-629.
  • Miura, S., Amacher, M., Hofer, T., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Emawati, Thackway, R., 2015. Protective functions and ecosystem services of global forests in the past quarter-century. Forest Ecology and Management 352: 35-46.
  • Moser, M., 1986. Unveröffentliches Skriptum zur Ingenieurgeologie II. Böschungen, Hangbewegungen. Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Geologie Univ. Erlangen – Nürnberg.
  • Motta, R., Heudemand, J.C., 2000. Protective forests and silvicultural stability. Mountain Research and Development 20: 180-187.
  • Rammer, W., Brauner, M., Ruprecht, H., Lexer, M.J., 2015. Evaluating the effects of forest management on rockfall protection and timber production at slope scale. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 8: 719-731.
  • Ritchie, A.M., 1963. Evaluation of rockfall and its control. Highway Research Record 17. Washington, DC, USA: Highway Research Board NRC, pp.13-28.
  • Roering, J.R., Schmidt, K.M., Stock, J.D., Dietrich, W.E., Montgomery, D.R., 2003. Shallow landsliding, root reinforcement, and the spatial distribution of trees in the Oregon Coast Range. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 40:237- 253.
  • Schönenberger, W., 2000. Silvicultural problems in subalpine forests in the Alps. In: Price MF, Butt N, editors. Forests in sustainable mountain development: a state of knowledge report for 2000. IUFRO Research Series 5. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, pp. 197-203.
  • Schönenberger, W., Noack, A., Thee, P., 2005. Effect of timber removal from windthrow slopes on the risk of the snow avalanches and rockfall. Forest Ecology and Management 213: 197-208.
  • Stoffel, M., Wehrli, A., Kühne, R., Dorren, L.K.A., Perret, S., Kienholz, H., 2006. Assessing the protective effect of mountain forests against rockfall using a 3D simulation model. Forest Ecology and Management 225: 113-122.
  • Stokes, A., 2006. Selecting tree species for use in rockfall-protection forests. Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 80: 77-86.
  • Stokes, A., Salin, F., Kokutse, A.D., Berthier, S., Jeannin, H., Mochan, S., Dorren, L., Kokutse, N., Abd Ghani, M., Fourcaud, T., 2005. resistance of different tree species to rockfall in the French Alps. Plant and Soil 278: 107-117.
  • Tacnet, J.M., 2012. Decision Support Guidelines - Methods, procedures and tools developped in PARAmount (WP7). Technical Report. European Regional Development Fund - Alpine Space Progam - Intereg IV - PARAmount project : imProved Accessibility: Reliability and safety of Alpine transport infrastructure related to mountainous hazards in a changing climate. http://www.paramoutproject.eu/.
  • Toe, D., Berger, F., 2015. Regional Mapping of Forest with a Protection Function against Rockfall. In: :Lollino G, Giordan D, Crosta GB, Corominas J, Azzam R, Wasowski J, Sciarra N, editors. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory- Volume 3, Landslide Processes. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
  • Vacik, H., Lexer, M.J., 2001. Application of a spatial decision support system in managing the protection forests of Vienna for sustained yield of water resources. Forest Ecology and Management 143: 65-76.
  • Wehrli, A., Dorren, L.K.A., Berger, F., Zingg, A., Schönenberger, W., Brang, P., 2006. long-term effects of forest dynamics on the protective effect against rockfall.”Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 80: 57-76.
  • Wei, L.W., Chen, H., Lee, C.F., Huang, W.K., Lin, M.L., Chi, C.C., Lin, H.H., 2014. mechanism of rockfall disaster: A case study from Badouzih, Keelung, in northern Taiwan.”Engineering Geology 183: 116-126.
  • Wieczorek, G.F., Stock, G.M., Reichenbach, P., Snyder, J.B., Borchers, J.W., Godt, J.W., 2008. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 8: 421-432.
  • Wu, T.H., McKinnell III, W.P., Swanston, D.N., 1979. Strength of tree roots and landslides on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 16: 19-33.
Konular Yaşam Bilimleri
Dergi Bölümü Araştırma Makalesi (Research Article)
Yazarlar

Yazar: Abdurrahim Aydın
E-posta: aaydin@duzce.edu.tr
Kurum: DUZCE UNIV
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Remzi Eker
E-posta: remzieker@duzce.edu.tr
Kurum: DUZCE UNIV

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jffiu281710, journal = {İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {0535-8418}, address = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, pages = {136 - 149}, doi = {10.17099/jffiu.281710}, title = {Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği}, language = {tr}, key = {cite}, author = {Eker, Remzi and Aydın, Abdurrahim} } @araştırma makalesi { jffiu281710, journal = {İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {0535-8418}, address = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, pages = {136 - 149}, doi = {10.17099/jffiu.281710}, title = {Forest mapping against rockfalls on a regional scale in Inebolu-Turkey}, language = {en}, key = {cite}, author = {Eker, Remzi and Aydın, Abdurrahim} }
APA Aydın, A , Eker, R . (2017). Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği. İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 67 (2), 136-149. DOI: 10.17099/jffiu.281710
MLA Aydın, A , Eker, R . "Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği". İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 67 (2017): 136-149 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/jffiu/issue/28363/281710>
Chicago Aydın, A , Eker, R . "Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği". İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 67 (2017): 136-149
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği AU - Abdurrahim Aydın , Remzi Eker Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.17099/jffiu.281710 DO - 10.17099/jffiu.281710 T2 - İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 136 EP - 149 VL - 67 IS - 2 SN - 0535-8418-1309-6257 M3 - doi: 10.17099/jffiu.281710 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.17099/jffiu.281710 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği %A Abdurrahim Aydın , Remzi Eker %T Kaya yuvarlanmalarından etkilenen orman alanlarının belirlenmesi: İnebolu örneği %D 2017 %J İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi %P 0535-8418-1309-6257 %V 67 %N 2 %R doi: 10.17099/jffiu.281710 %U 10.17099/jffiu.281710