Yıl 2017, Cilt 41, Sayı 2, Sayfalar 155 - 172 2017-12-15

Underground Structures, Rock Structures and Rock Mechanics fFrom Ancient Era to the Modern Age
İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği

Ebru Akış [1] , Özgür Satıcı [2]

132 602

Usage of underground space is an old habit for human beings from the ancient era. Our ancestors have used caves as a shelter for protection from the wild life and nature and they excavated caves to extract valuable minerals. They also used them as sanctuaries, tombs or for storage of goods. In addition, they built tunnels to be used as assault systems or to underpass fortifications during ancient warfare. Later on, tunnels were driven to supply water to the towns or to protect the towns from floods. They also built them for communication purposes. Though not knowing the exact time when they were first used, natural underground structures, which have several interconnections, were also built for underground dwelling purposes through the human history. In the following centuries, due to the need of transportation facilities, transportation tunnels were constructed, where new excavation techniques were also used. Navigation canal tunnels, railway tunnels and road tunnels were constructed during that period. All these structures were mostly excavated in rocks. The first excavations were performed manually. Later on, to excavate more easily, fire technique had been used. This was followed by the methods in which gunpowder, explosives and tunneling machinery were used. By some means or other, ancient civilizations had used fundamental principles of rock mechanics and applied these principles in the construction of the underground structures. Principles of rock mechanics are the sine qua non for all of these structures and facilities. In this study, the history and evaluation of rock mechanics will be given briefly and some examples of historical and monumental underground and rock structures will be presented.


Yeraltındaki alanlarının kullanımı insanlar için antik dönemlere uzanan eski bir alışkanlıktır. Atalarımız, mağaraları vahşi hayattan korunmak için barınak olarak kullandılar, ayrıca değerli mineralleri çıkarmak için kazarak yeraltı boşlukları oluşturdular. Bu boşlukları kutsal alan, mezar veya depo olarak kullandılar.  Bu kullanım amaçlarına ek olarak, savaşlar sırasında saldırı veya surları geçmek amacıyla tüneller inşa ettiler. Daha sonraları, tüneller yerleşim yerlerine su getirmek veya söz konusu alanları selden korumak amacıyla yapıldı. İlk kez ne zaman kullanıldıkları bilinmemekle birlikte, birbirleriyle bağlantılı olarak inşa edilen yer altı yapıları insanlık tarihi boyunca barınma amacıyla da kullanıldı. Sonraki yüzyıllarda, ulaşım sistemlerine duyulan ihtiyaç nedeniyle yeni kazı tekniklerinin kullanıldığı ulaşım ve iletim tünelleri inşa edildi. Bu dönemde, demiryolu tünelleri ve karayolu tünelleri yapıldı. Bu yapıların çoğunluğu kaya ortamda yer almaktadır. İlk kazılar elle yapılmış olup,  daha sonra kolay kazmak için ateşin kullanıldığı bilinmektedir. Bu tekniği, barut, patlayıcılar ve tünel açma makinaları takip etmiştir. Şu veya bu şekilde, eski  uygarlıklar kaya mekaniğinin temel prensiplerini kullanmış ve bu prensipleri yeraltı yapılarının inşasında uygulamışlardır. Kaya mekaniğinin prensipleri, tüm bu yapıların olmazsa olmaz unsurudur. Bu çalışmada, kaya mekaniğinin tarihçesi kısaca anlatılacak, tarihi ve anıtsal yeraltı ve kaya yapılarından örnekler sunulacaktır.


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Yazar: Ebru Akış

Yazar: Özgür Satıcı

Bibtex @derleme { jmd344499, journal = {Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi}, issn = {1016-9172}, eissn = {2564-6753}, address = {TMMOB Jeoloji Mühendisleri Odası}, year = {2017}, volume = {41}, pages = {155 - 172}, doi = {10.24232/jmd.344499}, title = {İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği}, key = {cite}, author = {Satıcı, Özgür and Akış, Ebru} }
APA Akış, E , Satıcı, Ö . (2017). İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi, 41 (2), 155-172. DOI: 10.24232/jmd.344499
MLA Akış, E , Satıcı, Ö . "İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği". Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 41 (2017): 155-172 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/jmd/issue/32375/344499>
Chicago Akış, E , Satıcı, Ö . "İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği". Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 41 (2017): 155-172
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği AU - Ebru Akış , Özgür Satıcı Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.24232/jmd.344499 DO - 10.24232/jmd.344499 T2 - Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 155 EP - 172 VL - 41 IS - 2 SN - 1016-9172-2564-6753 M3 - doi: 10.24232/jmd.344499 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.24232/jmd.344499 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği %A Ebru Akış , Özgür Satıcı %T İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği %D 2017 %J Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi %P 1016-9172-2564-6753 %V 41 %N 2 %R doi: 10.24232/jmd.344499 %U 10.24232/jmd.344499
ISNAD Akış, Ebru , Satıcı, Özgür . "İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği". Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 41 / 2 (Aralık 2017): 155-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.24232/jmd.344499