OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER

Esra Zıvralı Yarar [1]

24 28

Otizm spektrum bozukluğu (OSB), yaşam boyu süren nörogelişimsel bir bozukluktur. OSB’nin toplumdaki yaygınlığı kayda değer derecede yüksektir ve başta genetik olmak üzere bilişsel ve çevresel birçok faktörün OSB’nin ortaya çıkmasında etkili olduğu bilinmektedir. Günümüzde OSB tanısı halen davranışsal belirtilerin değerlendirilmesine dayanmaktadır. Bunun yanında, araştırmalar OSB’nin karmaşık etiyolojik, genetik ve fenotipik örüntülere sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. Tüm bunlar göz ününde bulundurulduğunda, OSB belirtilerinin birbiriyle olan ilişkileri kadar söz konusu belirtilerin birbirinden bağımsız olarak da incelenmesinin önemi ortaya çıkmaktadır. Nörogelişimsel bir bozukluk olan OSB’nin anlaşılmasında bilişsel teorilerin katkıları oldukça fazladır. Özellikle, zihin kuramı, yürütücü işlevler disfonksiyonu ve merkezi bütünleşme, OSB’nin davranışsal belirtilerini anlamamızda büyük katkıları olan temel bilişsel teorilerdir. Bu makalede, OSB’yi anlamamızda büyük katkıları olan bu üç önemli bilişsel teori ve bu teorilerin OSB semptomlarıyla ilişkileri bakımından kendi aralarındaki örüntülere değinilmiştir. 

otizm spektrum bozukluğu, bilişsel teoriler, yürütücü işlevler, merkezi bütünleşme, zihin kuramı
  • American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Astington, J. W., & Hughes, C. (2013). Theory of mind: Self-reflection and social understanding. P. D. Zelazo (Ed.), New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Bailey, A., Le Couteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonoff, E., Yuzda, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25(1), 63-77.
  • Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21(1), 37-46.
  • Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/highfunctioning autism, malesand females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5-17.
  • Becerra, T. A., Wilhelm, M., Olsen, J., Cockburn, M., & Ritz, B. (2013). Ambient air pollution and autism in Los Angeles County, California. Environmental Health Perspectives (Online), 121(3), 380.
  • Bennett, T. A., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S., Duku, E., Vaccarella, L., & Tuff, L. (2013). Theory of Mind, language and adaptive functioning in ASD: A neuroconstructivist perspective. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(1), 13-19
  • Best C. S., Moffat V. J., Power M. J., Owens, D. G., & Johnstone, E. C. (2008). The boundaries of the cognitive phenotype of autism: Theory of Mind, central coherence and ambiguous figure perception in young people with autistic traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(5), 840–847.
  • Bishop, D. V. M., Maybery, M., Wong, D., Maley, A., & Hallmayer, J. (2006). Characteristics of the broader phenotype in autism: a study of siblings using the children’s communication checklist-2. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 141B(2), 117-122.
  • Bishop, D. V. M., & Norbury, C. F. (2005) Executive functions in children with communication impairments, in relation to autistic symptomatology. 2: response inhibition. Autism, 9(1), 29-43.
  • Bonnel, A., Mottron, L., Peretz, I., Trudel, M., Gallun, E., & Bonnel, A. M. (2003). Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: a signal detection analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(2), 226-235.
  • Booth, R., Charlton, R., Hughes, C., & Happé, F. (2003). Disentangling weak coherence and executive dysfunction: planning drawing in autism and attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 387-392.
  • Booth, R., & Happé, F. (2010). “Hunting with a knife and ... fork”: Examining central coherence in autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and typical development with a linguistic task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 107(4), 377-393.
  • Brunsdon, V. E., & Happé, F. (2014). Exploring the ‘fractionation’ of autism at the cognitive level. Autism, 18(1), 17-30.
  • Burnette, C. P., Mundy, P. C., Meyer, J. A., Sutton, S. K., Vaughan, A. E., & Charak, D. (2005). Weak central coherence and its relations to theory of mind and anxiety in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(1), 6373.
  • Chaste, P. & Leboyer, M. (2012). Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and geneenvironment interactions. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(3), 281-292.
  • Chen, Y. H., Rodgers, J., & McConachie, H. (2009). Restricted and repetitive behaviours, sensory processing and cognitive style in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(4), 635-642.
  • Dawson, G., Munson, J., Webb, S. J., Nalty, T., Abbott, R., & Toth, K. (2007b). Rate of head growth decelerates and symptoms worsen in the second year of life in autism. Biological Psychiatry, 61(4), 458-464.
  • D'Cruz, A. M., Ragozzino, M. E., Mosconi, M. W., Shrestha, S., Cook, E. H., & Sweeney, J. A. (2013). Reduced behavioral flexibility in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychology, 27(2), 152-160.
  • Dichter, G. S., Lam, K. S. L., Turner-Brown, L. M., Holtzclaw, T. N., & Bodfish, J. W. (2009). Generativity abilities predict communication deficits but not repetitive behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(9), 1298-1304.
  • Drake, J. E., Redash, A., Coleman, K., Haimson, J., & Winner, E. (2010). “Autistic” local processing bias also found in children gifted in realistic drawing. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(6), 762-773.
  • Ecker, C., & Murphy, D. (2014). Neuroimaging in autism--from basic science to translational research. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10(2), 82–91.
  • Folstein, S., & Rutter M. (1977a). Genetic influences and infantile autism. Nature, 265, 726-728.
  • Folstein, S. E. & Rutter, M. L. (1977b). Infantile autism: a genetic study of 21 twin pairs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18, 297-321.
  • Fombonne, E. (2008). Thimerosal disappears but autism remains. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(1), 15-16.
  • Fombonne, E. (2009). Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatric Research, 65(6), 591–598.
  • Frans, E. M., Sandin, S., Reichenberg, A., Långström, N., Lichtenstein, P., McGrath, J. J., & Hultman, C. M. (2013). Autism risk across generations: a population-based study of advancing grandpaternal and paternal age. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(5), 516-521.
  • Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Frith, U. (1994). Autism and theory of mind in everyday life. Social Development, 3(2), 108-124.
  • Frith, U. (1996). Cognitive explanations of autism. Acta Paediatrica, 85(s416), 63-68.
  • Frith, U., & Happé, F. (1994). Autism: beyond “theory of mind”. Cognition, 50(1-3), 115–132.
  • Frith, U., Morton, J., & Leslie, A. M. (1991). The cognitive basis of a biological disorder: autism. Trends in Neurosciences, 14(10), 433-438.
  • Gardener, H., Spiegelman, D., & Buka, S. L. (2009). Prenatal risk factors for autism: comprehensive meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(1), 7-14.
  • Gilotty, L., Kenworthy, L., Sirian, L., Black, D. O., & Wagner, A. E. (2002). Adaptive skills and executive function in autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 241-248.
  • Goode, S., Rutter, M., & Howlin, P. (1994). A twenty-year follow-up of children with autism. In 13th biennial meeting of the International society for the Study of Behavioral Development. Amsterdam: The Netherlands.
  • Hallmayer, J., Cleveland, S., Torres, A., Phillips, J., Cohen, B., Torigoe, T., … Risch, N. (2011). Genetic heritability and shared environmental factors among twin pairs with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(11), 1095-1102.
  • Happé, F. G. (1994). An advanced test of theory of mind: understanding of story characters’ thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal children and adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(2), 129-154.
  • Happé, F. G. E. (1997). Central coherence and theory of mind in autism: Reading homographs in context. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15(1), 112.
  • Happé, F. G. E., & Booth, R. D. L. (2008). The power of the positive: revisiting weak coherence in autism spectrum disorders. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(1), 50-63.
  • Happé, F., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 5-25.
  • Happé, F., & Vital, P. (2009). What aspects of autism predispose to talent? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 364(1522), 1369-1375.
  • Hazlett, H. C., Poe, M., Gerig, G., Smith, R. G., Provenzale, J., Ross, A.,… Piven, J. (2005). Magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference study of brain size in autism: birth through age 2 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(12), 1366-1376.
  • Hill, E. L. (2004). Evaluating the theory of executive dysfunction in autism. Developmental Review, 24(2), 189-233.
  • Hughes, C., Russell, J., & Robbins, T. W. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32(4), 477-492.
  • Hultman, C. M., Sandin, S., Levine, S. Z., Lichtenstein, P., & Reichenberg, A. (2011). Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a populationbased study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(12), 1203-1212.
  • Jarrold C., Butler D. W, Cottington E. M, & Jimenez, F. (2000) Linking Theory of Mind and central coherence bias in autism and in the general population. Developmental Psychology, 36(1), 126–138.
  • Jeste, S. S., & Geschwind, D. H. (2014). Disentangling the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder through genetic findings. Nature Reviews. Neurology, 10(2), 74–81.
  • Kanner, L. (1949). ‘Problems of nosology and Psychodynamics in early childhood autism’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 19, 416-426.
  • Kenworthy, L., Black, D. O., Harrison, B., della Rosa, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2009). Are executive control functions related to autism symptoms in high-functioning children? Child Neuropsychology, 15(5), 425-440.
  • Kim, Y. S., & Leventhal, B. L. (2015). Genetic epidemiology and insights into interactive genetic and environmental effects in autism spectrum disorders. Biological psychiatry, 77(1), 66-74.
  • Lee, J. E., Bigler, E. D., Alexander, A. L., Lazar, M., DuBray, M. B., Chung, M. K., … Lainhart, J. E. (2007). Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter in the superior temporal gyrus and temporal stem in autism. Neuroscience Letters, 424(2), 127132.
  • LeMonda, B. C., Holtzer, R., & Goldman, S. (2012). Relationship between executive functions and motor stereotypies in children with Autistic Disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(3), 1099-1106.
  • Lerner, M. D., Hutchins, T. L., & Prelock, P. A. (2011). Brief report: preliminary evaluation of the theory of mind inventory and its relationship to measures of social skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(4), 512–517.
  • Leslie, A. M. (1994). ToMM, ToBy, and agency: Core architecture and domain specificity in cognition and culture. In L. A. Hirsch- feld and S. A. Gelman, (Ed.), Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture (pp. 119148). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Leslie, A. M., & Thaiss, L. (1992). Domain specificity in conceptual development: Neuropsychological evidence from autism. Cognition, 43(3), 225-251.
  • Lichtenstein, P., Carlström, E., Råstam, M., Gillberg, C., & Anckarsäter, H. (2010). The genetics of autism spectrum disorders and related neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(11), 1357-1363.
  • Lopez, B. R., Lincoln, A. J., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(4), 445-460.
  • Losh, M., & Piven, J. (2007). Social-cognition and the broad autism phenotype: identifying genetically meaningful phenotypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48(1), 105-112.
  • Loth, E., Carlos Gómez, J., & Happé, F. (2008). Detecting changes in naturalistic scenes: contextual inconsistency does not influence spontaneous attention in high-functioning people with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research : Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 1(3), 179-188.
  • Loth, E., Happé, F., & Gómez, J. C. (2010). Variety is not the spice of life for people with autism spectrum disorders: frequency ratings of central, variable and inappropriate aspects of common real-life events. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(6), 730-742.
  • Miller, S. A. (2012). Theory of mind: Beyond the preschool years. New York: Psychology Press.
  • Moran, J. M. (2013). Lifespan development: the effects of typical aging on theory of mind. Behavioural Brain Research, 237, 32-40.
  • Morgan, B., Maybery, M., & Durkin, K. (2003). Weak central coherence, poor joint attention, and low verbal ability: Independent deficits in early autism. Developmental Psychology, 39(4), 646-656.
  • Mosconi, M. W., Kay, M., D’Cruz, A. M., Seidenfeld, A., Guter, S., Stanford, L. D., & Sweeney, J. A. (2009). Impaired inhibitory control is associated with higherorder repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine, 39(9), 1559-1566.
  • Mottron L, Dawson M, Souliéres, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: an updated model, and eight principles autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 27–43.
  • Nagar Shimoni, H., Weizman, A., Yoran, R. H., & Raviv, A. (2012). Theory of mind, severity of autistic symptoms and parental correlates in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 197(1-2), 85-89.
  • Noens, I. L. J., & van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A. (2005). Captured by details: sensemaking, language and communication in autism. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38(2), 123-141.
  • Noens, I. L. J., & van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A. (2008). The central coherence account of autism revisited: Evidence from the ComFor study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(2), 209-222.
  • Ozonoff, S. (1995). Reliability and validity of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in studies of autism. Neuropsychology, 9(4), 491–500.
  • Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32(7), 1081-1105.
  • Parker, S. K., Schwartz, B., Todd, J., & Pickering, L. K. (2004). Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics, 114(3), 793-804.
  • Pellicano, E. (2007). Links between theory of mind and executive function in young children with autism: clues to developmental primacy. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 974-990.
  • Pellicano, E. (2010a). Individual differences in executive function and central coherence predict developmental changes in theory of mind in autism. Developmental Psychology, 46(2), 530-544.
  • Pellicano, E. (2010b). The development of core cognitive skills in autism: a 3-year prospective study. Child Development, 81(5), 1400-1416.
  • Pellicano, E. (2013). Testing the predictive power of cognitive atypicalities in autistic children: Evidence from a 3‐year follow‐up study. Autism Research, 6(4), 258267.
  • Pellicano, E., Maybery, M., & Durkin, K., (2006). Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: ‘Weak’ central coherence and its relationship to Theory of Mind and executive control. Development and Psychopathology, 18(1), 77-98.
  • Plaisted, K., O’Riordan, M., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1998). Enhanced discrimination of novel, highly similar stimuli by adults with autism during a perceptual learning task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 39(5), 765-775.
  • Reed, P., Watts, H., & Truzoli, R. (2013) Flexibility in young people with autism spectrum disorders on a card sort task. Autism, 17(2), 162–171.
  • Russell, J. (1996). Agency: its role in mental development. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Erlbaum.
  • Russell, J. (1997). How executive disorders can bring about an inadequate “theory of mind”. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Russell-Smith, S. N., Maybery, M. T., Bayliss, D. M., & Sng, A. A. H. (2012). Support for a link between the local processing bias and social deficits in autism: an investigation of embedded figures test performance in non-clinical individuals. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(11), 2420-2430.
  • Rutter, M. (1983). Cognitive deficits in the pathogenesis of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(4), 513-531.
  • Rutter, M. (2013). Changing concepts and findings on autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(8), 1749-1757.
  • Sandin, S., Hultman, C. M., Kolevzon, A., Gross, R., MacCabe, J. H., & Reichenberg, A. (2012). Advancing maternal age is associated with increasing risk for autism: a review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(5), 477–486.e1.
  • Sealey, L. A., Hughes, B. W., Sriskanda, A. N., Guest, J. R., Gibson, A. D., JohnsonWilliams, L., ... & Bagasra, O. (2016). Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders. Environment international, 88, 288298.
  • Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(8), 13511364.
  • South, M., Ozonoff, S., & William, M. (2007). The relationship between executive functioning, central coherence, and repeti- tive behaviors in the high-functioning autism spectrum. Autism, 11(5), 437–451.
  • Stone, V. E., & Gerrans, P. (2006). What’s domain-specific about theory of mind? Social Neuroscience, 1(3-4), 309–319.
  • Teunisse, J. P., Cools, A. R., van Spaendonck, K. P., Aerts, F. H., & Berger, H. J. (2001). Cognitive styles in high-functioning adolescents with autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 55-66.
  • Turner, M. (1995). Repetitive behaviour and cognitive functioning in autism (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Cambridge, UK.
  • Turner, M. A. (1997). Towards an executive dysfunction account of repetitive behavior in autism. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp. 57–100). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Tyszka, J. M., Kennedy, D. P., Paul, L. K., & Adolphs, R. (2014). Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism. Cerebral Cortex, 24(7), 1894-1905.
  • Walsh, C. A., Morrow, E. M., & Rubenstein, J. L. R. (2008). Autism and brain development. Cell, 135(3), 396-400.
  • Wang, A. T., Lee, S. S., Sigman, M., & Dapretto, M. (2006). Neural basis of irony comprehension in children with autism: the role of prosody and context. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 129(Pt 4), 932-943.
  • Webb, S. J., Nalty, T., Munson, J., Brock, C., Abbott, R., & Dawson, G. (2007). Rate of head circumference growth as a function of autism diagnosis and history of autistic regression. Journal of Child Neurology, 22(10), 1182-1190.
  • White, S. J. (2013). The Triple I Hypothesis: taking another(’s) perspective on executive dysfunction in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(1), 114-121.
  • Williams, D. M., & Happé, F. (2009). What did I say? Versus what did I think? Attributing false beliefs to self amongst children with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(6), 865–873.
  • Williams, D., & Jarrold, C. (2013). Assessing planning and set-shifting abilities in autism: are experimenter-administered and computerised versions of tasks equivalent? Autism research : Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 6(6), 461-467.
  • Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition, 13(1), 103-128.
  • Yerys, B. E., Wallace, G.L., Harrison, B. (2009). Set-shifting in children with autism spectrum disorders: reversal shifting deficits on the Intradimensional/Extradimensional Shift Test correlate with repetitive behaviors. Autism, 13(5), 523-538.
  • Zaitchik, D. (1990). When representations conflict with reality: the preschooler’s problem with false beliefs and “false” photographs. Cognition, 35(1), 41-68.
  • Zandt, F., Prior, M., & Kyrios, M. (2009). Similarities and differences between children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and those with obsessive compulsive disorder: executive functioning and repetitive behaviour. Autism, 13(1), 43-57.
  • Zielinski, B. A., Prigge, M. B. D., Nielsen, J. A., Froehlich, A. L., Abildskov, T. J., Anderson, J. S., … Lainhart, J. E. (2014). Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 137(Pt 6), 1799-1812.
Birincil Dil tr
Konular Sosyal Bilimler (Genel)
Dergi Bölümü Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Esra Zıvralı Yarar (Sorumlu Yazar)
E-posta: esra.yarar@asbu.edu.tr
Kurum: ANKARA SOSYAL BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SOSYAL VE BEŞERİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, PSİKOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
Ülke: Turkey


Bibtex @diğer { muhakeme410468, journal = {Muhakeme Dergisi}, issn = {}, address = {Metin KILIÇ}, year = {}, volume = {1}, pages = {10 - 20}, doi = {}, title = {OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER}, key = {cite}, author = {Zıvralı Yarar, Esra} }
APA Zıvralı Yarar, E . (). OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER. Muhakeme Dergisi, 1 (1), 10-20. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/muhakeme/issue/37302/410468
MLA Zıvralı Yarar, E . "OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER". Muhakeme Dergisi 1 (): 10-20 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/muhakeme/issue/37302/410468>
Chicago Zıvralı Yarar, E . "OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER". Muhakeme Dergisi 1 (): 10-20
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER AU - Esra Zıvralı Yarar Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Muhakeme Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 10 EP - 20 VL - 1 IS - 1 SN - - M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Muhakeme Dergisi OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER %A Esra Zıvralı Yarar %T OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU VE BİLİŞSEL TEORİLER %D 2018 %J Muhakeme Dergisi %P - %V 1 %N 1 %R %U