Yıl 2017, Cilt 7, Sayı 3, Sayfalar 539 - 559 2017-11-28

Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri
The International Advertising Strategies of Turkish Airlines In The Context Of Globalisation

Hediye Aydoğan [1]

171 635

Ulaşım ve internet teknolojilerinde meydana gelen gelişmelerle insan, mal ve hizmet gibi pek çok unsurun dünya üzerindeki hareketliliğini kolaylaştıran küreselleşme ekonomik, politik ve teknolojik hayatı olduğu kadar kültürel hayatı da etkisi altına almaktadır. Toplumların kültürünü oluşturan dil, gelenekler ve yaşam tarzı gibi unsurları etkileyen küreselleşme, kültürün bu unsurlarının beslediği ve bu unsurlarını besleyen reklamları da şekillendirmektedir.

Küreselleşmenin yarattığı rekabet koşullarında şirketlerin faaliyet gösterdikleri pazarların daralması nedeniyle dış pazarlara açılan şirketlerin, bu pazarlarda tutunabilmelerinde ve kârlarını azamileştirebilmelerinde önemli bir rol oynayan reklamlarını tüm pazarlarda standartlaştırması, faaliyet gösterdiği her bir pazarın kültürüne göre uyarlaması veya küyerel bir strateji izlemesi gerekliliği, yazında küresel şirketlerin reklamlarının incelenmesi üzerinden tartışılagelen bir konudur. Bu bağlamda bu çalışmanın amacı, küresel bir marka olma yolunda ilerleyen bir Türk şirketi olarak Türk Hava Yolları’nın (THY), SkyLibrary internet sayfasındaki 2010-2014 yıllarına ait derginin sayılarını inceleyerek, bu sayılarda yer alan altı THY reklamları üzerinden şirketin başvurduğu uluslararası reklam stratejilerini belirlemektir. Bu reklamlarda hangi unsurları kullanarak bu stratejileri benimsediğini ortaya koymak amacıyla, Hofstede ve meslektaşlarının (2010) sunduğu Soğan Kabuğu Modeli’ndeki unsurlar temel alınarak bu reklamların göstergebilim açısından bir çözümlemesi sunulmaktadır. Küreselleşen bir Türk markasının uluslararası reklamcılık stratejilerini belirlemeye çalışan ilk çalışma olması nedeniyle önem taşıyan bu çalışma, THY’nin standartlaştırma ve küyerel stratejiye başvurduğu ve küyerel reklam stratejilerinde ise daha çok görsel ve dilsel göstergelerde değişime gittiği sonucuna ulaşmıştır.


Making it easier for the mobility of many things such as goods, services and man in the world thanks to the developments of the transportation and internet technologies, globalisation affect the cultural life as well as the economic, political and technological life. In addition, having an impact on the cultural components (language, traditions, lifestyles, and so on) of the societies, globalisation shapes the advertisements fostered by these components.

It is highly disputed in the literature whether the global companies getting into the foreign markets due to the shrinking of the domestic markets in which they facilitate under the competitive conditions stemming from the globalisation, should create standardised, adapted or glocalised advertisements in order to establish their hold on these markets and to maximize their profits. In this context, the main objective of this study is to identify the international advertising strategies of the six advertisements of Turkish Airlines on the issues of magazines published on SkyLibrary in between 2010 and 2014. In order to reveal which elements Turkish Airlines uses for its standardised, adapted or glocalised advertisements, this study makes use of the Hofstede et al.’s Cultural Onion Model (2010) and applies a semiological analysis. This study, bearing the importance of being the first study analysing the international advertising of a Turkish brand in terms of its strategies, concludes that Turkish Airlines employ the standardised and glocalised advertisement strategies, and the glocalised advertisement strategy is implemented mostly by making differences in the visual and linguistic symbols. 

  • Abdullayev, N. & Elma, F. (2009). Sovyetler Birliği’nde Reform Sürecinin Başlangıcı ve Gorbaçov Dönemi. Journal of Qafqaz University, 26, 71-87.
  • Acar, Y. (2009). Küreselleşme Sürecinde Türkiye’de Reklam Endüstrisindeki Değişimler. (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Adair, W. L. & Brett, J. M. (2004). Culture and Negotiation Processes. In: M. J. Gelfand & J. M. Brett (Eds.), The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture. (p. 158-176). California: Stanford University Press.
  • Aktuğoğlu, I. K. & Eğinli, A. T. (2010). Küresel Reklâm Stratejilerinin Belirlenmesinde Kültürel Farklılıkların Önemi. Selçuk İletişim, 6(3), 167-183.
  • Albrow, M. (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society: Readings from International Sociology. London: Sage Publications.
  • Ambrose, G. & Harris, P. (2005). Basics Design 05: Colour. Ava Publishing SA, Switzerland.
  • Atabek, G. Ş. & Atabek, Ü. (2007). Medya Metinlerini Çözümlemek. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.
  • Backhaus C., Blut M. & Heussler T. (2017) Shifting the Standardisation/Adaptation Debate to National Franchising: Empirical Evidence From Germany. In: C. L. Campbell (Ed.), The Customer is NOT Always Right? Marketing Orientations in a Dynamic Business World. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. (p. 808-808). Cham: Springer.
  • Balkanlı, A. O. (2002). Küresel Ekonominin Belirleyici Faktörleri Üzerine. Uludağ Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(1), 13-26.
  • Barthes, R. (2011). Çağdaş Söylenler. (Trans by. T. Yücel.), 4th Ed, İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Batı, U. (2013). Reklamın Dili. 3rd Ed., İstanbul: Alfa Yayınları.
  • Belch, G. E. & Belch, M. A. (2003). Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. 6th Ed, Ohio: The McGraw-Hill.
  • Berger, A. A. (1996). Kitle İletişiminde Çözümleme Yöntemleri. (Trans.by M. Barkan), 2nd Ed., Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi.
  • Boeing, M. (2013). Analysis of Cultural Differences and their Effects on Marketing Products in the United States of America and Germany with a Focus on Cultural Theories of Hall and Hofstede. Germany: Anchor Academic Publishing.
  • Brand Finance. (2016). Türkiye’nin En Değerli Markaları. Retrieved [on 20 June 2016] from http://brandfinance.com/images/upload/turkey_100_report_2016_for_print.pdf.
  • Buil, I., de Chernatony, L. & Martínez, E. (2013). Examining The Role Of Advertising And Sales Promotions In Brand Equity Creation. Journal of Business Research, 66, 115-122.
  • Chen, G. M. (1992). Differences in Self-Disclosure Patterns among Americans versus Chinese: A Comparative Study. Conference Papers of Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association, 30 April-3 May 1992, Portland.
  • China Highlights. (n. d.). Chinese Dragons – Facts, Importance, Origin, And Dragons in China. Retrieved [on 10 October 2016] from http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/article-chinese-dragons.htm.
  • Çelen, B. & Yıldız, E. (2015). “Renklerin Reklam Algısı Üzerindeki Etkisi: 2012 Kırmızı Reklam Ödülleri”. Sanat Eğitim Dergisi, 3(2), 129-146.
  • Dağtaş, B. (2009). Reklam Kültür Toplum. Ankara: Ütopya Yayınevi.
  • Dapkus, G. & Eimantaité, G. (2010). Adapting the Advertisement Considering International Markets Peculiarities. Economics and Management, 15, 457-464.
  • Das, D. K. (2004). The Economic Dimensions of Globalization. New York: Palgrave MacMilllan.
  • Das, D. K. (2010). Globalisation: Past and Present. Economic Affairs, 30, 66–70.
  • Delbaere, M., McQuarrie, E. F. & Phillips, B. J. (2011). “Personification In Advertising”. Journal of Advertising, 40(1), 121-130.
  • Doole, I. & Lowe, R. (2008). International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation. 5th Ed., London: Cengage Learning EMEA.
  • Duman, M. Z. (2009). Küreselleşme, Kimlik ve Çokkültürlülük. Uluslararası Eğitim Felsefesi Kongresi: Küreselleşme Sürecinde Eğitim Sorunlarının Felsefi Boyutu. (p. 587-600). 6-8 March 2009, Ankara.
  • Dumitrescu, L., & Vinerean, S. (2010). The Glocal Strategy of Global Brands. Studies in Business and Economics, 5(3), 147-155.
  • Duncan, T. & Ramaprasad, J. (1995). Standardized Multinational Advertising: The Influencing Factors. Journal of Advertising, 24(3), 55-68.
  • Eason, C. (2008). Fabulous Creatures, Mythical Monsters, and Animal Power Symbols: A Handbook. USA: Greenwood Press.
  • Eckes, G. (2003). Six Sigma For Everyone. New Jersey and Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Fatt, A. C. (1965). A Multi‐National Approach To International Advertising. The International Executive, 7(1), 5-6.
  • Fatt, A. C. (1967). The Danger of “Local” International Advertising. Journal of Marketing, 31(1), 60-62.
  • Featherstone, M. (1996). Undoing Culture: Globalization, Postmodernism and Identity. London: SAGE Publications.
  • Feltes, F. (2015). Should Brand Design using Brand Personality be adapted to the cultural differences of international markets?, Munich: GRIN Verlag, http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/345518/should-brand-design-using-brand-personality-be-adapted-to-the-cultural.
  • Fiske, J. (1989). Understanding Popular Culture. New York and London: Routledge.
  • Fiske, J. (2003). İletişim Çalışmalarına Giriş. (Trans.by S. İrvan), Ankara: Bilim Sanat Yayınları.
  • Fortune Turkey. (2016). Fortune 500-2016. Retrieved [on 10 June 2016] from http://www.fortuneturkey.com/fortune500.
  • Friedman, T. L. (2007). The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. 3rd Ed., New York: Picador.
  • Giddens, A. (1991). The Consequences of Modernity. USA: Stanford University Press.
  • Goodman, D. J. (2007). Globalization and Consumer Culture. In: G. Ritzer (Ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. (p. 330-351). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Gümüş, K. & Şahin, H. (1982). Temel Göstergebilim Kavramları. Mimarlık, 82(11-12), 35-37.
  • Hall, C. M. & Page, S. (2000). Tourism in South and Southeast Asia: Issues and Cases. UK: Routledge.
  • Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books.
  • Hall, E. T. & Hall, M. R. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences: Germans, French and Americans. USA: Intercultural Press, Inc.
  • Hermans, H. J. M. & Kempen, H. J. G. (1998). Moving Cultures: The Perilous Problems of Cultural Dichotomies in a Globalizing Society. American Psychologist, 53(10), 1111-1120.
  • Herselman, M. & van Greunen, D. (2011). Global Survey on Culture Differences and Context in Using E-Government Systems: A Pilot Study. In: R. Popescu-Zeletin, I. A. Rai, K. Jonas & A. Villafiorita (Eds.), E-Infrastructures and E-Services for Developing Countries. Second International ICST Conference AFRICOMM 2010 Revised Selected Papers. (Vol. 64). (p. 49-68). South Africa: Springer.
  • Hite, R. E. & Fraser, C. (1990). International Advertising Strategies of Multinational Corporations. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(4) 9-17.
  • Hobson, J. S. P. (1994). Feng Shui: Its Impacts on the Asian Hospitality Industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 6(6), 21-26.
  • Hofstede, G. (n. d.). National Culture. Retrieved [on 10 June 2017] from https://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html.
  • Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, Leadership and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?. Organizational Dynamic, 2, 42-63.
  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Operation and Its Importance for Survival. 3rd Ed, USA: The McGraw-Hill.
  • Hout, T., Porter, M. E. & Rudden, E. (1982). How Global Companies Win Out. Harvard Business Review, 60(5), 98-108.
  • İK Magazin. (2015). Türkiye'nin En İyi 500 Şirketi Ödüllendirildi. Retrieved [on 10 June 2016] from http://www.ikmagazin.com/n-682-turkiyenin-en-iyi-500-sirketi-odullendirildi.html.
  • Ju-Pak, K. H. (1999). Content Dimensions of Web Advertising: a Cross-national Comparison. International Journal of Advertising, 18(2), 207-231, doi: 10.1080/02650487.1999.1110475.
  • Kanso, A. & Kitchen, P. J. (2004). “Marketing Consumer Services Internationally”. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 22(2), 201-215.
  • Khan, M. (2003). Teaching Globalization. Retrieved [on 22 February 2015] from https://www.globalpolicy.org/globalization/defining-globalization/27666.html.
  • Keegan, J. W. & Green, M. C. (2012). Global Marketing. 7th Ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Keller K. L. (2007). Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. 3rd Ed. New York: Prentice Hall.
  • Keohane, R. O. & Nye, J. S. Jr. (2000). Introduction. In: J. S. Nye & J. D. Donahue (Eds.), Governance in a Globalizing World. (p. 1-41). Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Kotler, P. (1986). Global Standardization – Courting Danger. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 3(2), 13-15.
  • Kumar, R., Kalra, S. K. & Mahapatra, A. K. (2007). Lord Ganesha: The Idol Neurosurgeon. Childs Nerv Syst, 24, 287-288.
  • Küçükerdoğan, G. R. (2011). Reklam Nasıl Çözümlenir: Reklam İletişiminde Göstergeler ve Stratejiler. 2nd Ed., İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.
  • Laroche, M., Kirpalani, V. H., Pons, F. & Zhou, L. (2001). A Model Of Advertising Standardization In Multinational Companies. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(2), 249-266.
  • Li, X. J., Bevan, A., Martinon-Torres, M. Rehren, T., Cao, W., Xia, Y. & Zhao, K. (2014). Crossbows and Imperial Craft Organisation: The Bronze Triggers of China’s Terracotta Army. Antiquity Publications Ltd., 88, 126-140.
  • McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. 2nd Ed., Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  • Müeller, B. (1996). International Advertising: Communicating Across Cultures. USA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
  • Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1995) Globalization as Hybridization. In: M. Featherstone, S. M. Lash & R. Robertson (Eds.), Global Modernities. (p. 45-68). London: Sage.
  • Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2009). Globalization and Culture: Global Mélange. 2nd Ed., UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Onkvisit, S. & Shaw, J. J. (1990). Global Advertising: Revolution or Myopia?. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 2(3), 97-112.
  • Onkvisit, S. & Shaw, J. J. (1999). Standardized International Advertising: Some Research Issues and Implications. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(6), 19-24.
  • Onkvisit S. & Shaw J. (2004). International Marketing: Analysis and Strategy. 4th Ed., New York and London: Routledge.
  • Paek, H. J. (2005). Understanding Celebrity Endorsers In Cross-cultural Contexts: A Content Analysis of South Korean and US Newspaper Advertising. Asian Journal of Communication, 15(2), 133-153.
  • Paez, D. & Vergara, A.I. (1995). Cultural Differences in Emotional Knowledge: A Study in Mexico, Chile, Belgium and the Basque Country (Spain). In: J. A.
  • Russell, J. Fernandez-Dols, A. S. R. Manstead & J. C. Wellenkamp (Eds.), Everyday Conceptions of Emotion: An Introduction to the Psychology, Anthropology and Linguistics of Emotion. (Vol. 81). (p. 415-434). 3-8 May 1994, Almagro-Spain.
  • Papavassiliou, N. & Stathakopoulos, V. (1997). Standardization versus Adaptation of International Advertising Strategies: Towards A Framework. European Journal of Marketing, 31(7), 504-527.
  • Paper Plane Mafia. (n. d.). How Do Paper Airplanes Fly. Retrieved [on 10 October 2016] from https://paperplanemafia.com/how-do-paper-airplanes-fly/.
  • Parashar, P. (2016). Ganapati Cult and Iconography of God Ganesha and Other Elephant Forms. International Conference on Asian Elephants in Culture & Nature. 20-21 August 2016, Sri Lanka.
  • Rajabi, M., Dens, N., & De Pelsmacker, P. (2015). Advertising Adaptation versus Standardization Effectiveness in Open and Closed Markets. In: I. B. Banks, P. de Pelsmacker & S. Okazaki (Eds.), Advances in Advertising Research. (Vol. V). (p. 177-190). Wiesbaden: Springer.
  • Ramesh, K. & McGowan, P. (2009). On The Current Status of Indian Peafowl Pavo Cristatus (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae): Keeping The Common Species Common. JoTT Communication, 1(2), 106-108.
  • Rantanen, T. (2005). The Media and Globalization. London: Sage Publications.
  • Rhizopoulou, S. (2004). Symbolic Plant(s) of the Olympic Games. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55(403), 1601-1606.
  • Robertson, R. (1990). Mapping the Global Condition: Globalization as the Central Concept. In: M. Featherstone (Ed.), Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity: A Theory, Culture & Society Special Issue. (p. 15-30). London: Sage Publications.
  • Robertson, R. (1992). Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. New York: SAGE Publications.
  • Samiee, S., Jeong, I., Pae, J. H. & Tai, S. (2003). Advertising Standardization In Multinational Corporations: The Subsidiary Perspective. Journal of Business Research, 56, 613-626.
  • Sanskriti Magazine. (n. d.). Meaning of Different Colours in Hinduism. Retrieved [on 10 October 2016] from http://www.sanskritimagazine.com/indian-religions/hinduism/meaning-of-different-colours-in-hinduism/.
  • Sapienza, F. (n.d). Culture And Context: A Summary Of Geert Hofstede's And Edward Hall's Theories Of Cross-Cultural Communication For Web Usability. Retrieved [on 1 August 2017] from http://www.filippsapienza.com/CultureContextEnglish.html.
  • Saran, M. (2013). Küreselleşme ve Kültür: Sınırların Belirleyicisi Kültür. In: E. N. Orhon & R. A. Yılmaz (Eds.), Küreselleşme ve Kültürlerarası İletişim. (p. 40-72). Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Schliesinger, J. (2012). Geisha: The Mysterious Japanese Entertainer. Bangkok: Booksmango.
  • Sherry, J. F. Jr. (1987). Advertising as a Cultural System. In: J. Umiker-Sebeok (Ed.), Marketing and Semiotics: New Directions In The Study Of Signs For Sale. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Sklair, L. (1991). Sociology of The Global System. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Skylibrary. (n. d.). SKYLIBRARY. Retrieved [on 10 June 2016] from http://www.skylibrary.com/.
  • Skytrax World Airline Awards. (2016). World’s Top 100 Airlines. Retrieved [on 12 August 2016] from http://www.worldairlineawards.com/Awards.
  • Sleeboom, M. (2002). The Power of National Symbols: The Credibility of A Dragon’s Efficacy. Nations and Nationalism, 8(3), 299-313.
  • Sorrells, K. (2010). Re-Imagining Intercultural Communication in the Context of Globalization. In: T.K. Nakayama & R. T. Halualani (Eds.), The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. (p. 171-190). UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Svensson, G. (2001). “Glocalization” of Business Activities: A “Glocalization Strategy” Approach. Management Decision, 39(1), 6-18.
  • Taichi-Kungfu-Online. (n. d.). Best Tai Chi Kung Fu Online. Retrieved [on 10 October 2016] from http://taichi-kungfu-online.tumblr.com/post/149930270490/the-10-important-movements-in-shaolin-taolu.
  • Taylor, C. R. & Okazaki, S. (2006). Who Standardizes Advertising More Frequently, and Why Do They Do So? A Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Subsidiaries’ Advertising Practices In The European Union. Journal of International Marketing, 14(1), 98-120.
  • Thompson, J. B. (1995). The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of The Media. UK: Polity Press.
  • Tomlinson, J. (2004). Küreselleşme ve Kültür. (Trans. by A. Eker), İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R. & Villareal, M. J. (1988). Individualism and Collectivisim: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Self-Ingroup Relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(2), 323-338.
  • Tulloch, S. (1993). The Oxford Dictionary of New Words: A Popular Guide to Words In The News. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Verma, S. (2015). Business Communication: Essential Strategies for Twenty-first Century Managers. 2nd Ed., India: Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd.
  • Visit East Timor. (n. d.). Timorese People & Culture. Retrieved [on 10 October 2016] from http://visiteasttimor.com/see-do/timorese-people-culture/.
  • Vrontis, D. & Thrassou, A. (2007). Adaptation vs. Standardization In International Marketing – The Country-of-Origin Effect. Innovative Marketing, 3(4), 7-20.
  • Waters, M. (2001). Globalization. 2nd Ed., London: Routledge.
  • Wright, J. S., Winter, W. L. & Zeigler, S. K. (1983). Advertising. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
  • Yılmaz, Ş. (2001). Liberal İktisat Öğretisi, Kriz ve Türkiye Üzerine Bazı Gözlemler. Gazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 3, 27-40.
  • Yip, G. S. (1989). Global Strategy… In A World Of Nations?. Sloan Management Review, 31(1), 29-41.
  • Yip, G. S. & Coundouriotis, G. A. (1991). Diagnosing Global Strategy Potential: The World Chocolate Confectionery Industry. Planning Review, 19(1), 4-14.
  • Yumuşak, İ. G. (2001). Elektronik Ticaretin Gelişmekte Olan Ülkelere Etkileri ve Türkiye Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Uluslararası V. ODTÜ İktisat Kongresi. (p. 118-133). 10-13 September 2011, Ankara.
  • Zakaria, N. & Abdul-Talib, A. N. (2010). Applying Islamic Market‐Oriented Cultural Model To Sensitize Strategies Towards Global Customers, Competitors, And Environment. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 1(1), 51-62, https://doi.org/10.1108/17590831011026222.
  • Zeybek, I. (2002). “Görsel İletişim ve Renklerin Aktardıkları”. İstanbul Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12, 813-826.
  • Zeybek, I., & Ekin, V. (2012). The Local Strategies of Global Brands in Turkey: Cultural Signs and Advertisement Messages. Journalism and Mass Communication, 2(8), 804-811.
Konular İletişim
Dergi Bölümü MAKALE
Yazarlar

Yazar: Hediye Aydoğan
Kurum: AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLETİŞİM FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { odusobiad332607, journal = {ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD)}, issn = {1309-9302}, address = {Ordu Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {7}, pages = {539 - 559}, doi = {}, title = {Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri}, key = {cite}, author = {Aydoğan, Hediye} }
APA Aydoğan, H . (2017). Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri. ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD), 7 (3), 539-559. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/odusobiad/issue/32288/332607
MLA Aydoğan, H . "Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri". ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD) 7 (2017): 539-559 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/odusobiad/issue/32288/332607>
Chicago Aydoğan, H . "Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri". ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD) 7 (2017): 539-559
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri AU - Hediye Aydoğan Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 539 EP - 559 VL - 7 IS - 3 SN - 1309-9302- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD) Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri %A Hediye Aydoğan %T Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri %D 2017 %J ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD) %P 1309-9302- %V 7 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Aydoğan, Hediye . "Küreselleşme Bağlamında Türk Hava Yolları’nın Uluslararası Reklam Stratejileri". ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD) 7 / 3 (Kasım 2017): 539-559.