Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors
Pamukkale destinasyonu imajının çekicilik faktörlerine göre değerlendirilmesi

Selçuk Burak Haşıloğlu [1] , Sanem Alkibay [2]

58 70

The attraction image of a tourism center is an important factor in the formation of the destination image. The present study is designed to determine the attraction factors and superiorities of the Pamukkale destination image from the perspective of foreign tourists and to assess destination alternatives. Both because the issue of image assessment is relative and because the issue of determining the alternatives require making a multi-variable decision, the theory of fuzzy sets has been used as the research method. The image of Pamukkale and its vicinity according to the attraction factors is divided into four areas: Pamukkale travertine, ancient monuments, health/spa tourism and shopping opportunities. Because the attraction factor image of Pamukkale travertine is dominant, the levels of the other factors have remained low. Therefore, the region is perceived not as a place in which to spend several days on the basis of tourism but as a sightseeing place to spend a few hours. To mediate this perception, the {B-E} points where there are opportunities for Pamukkale travertine, ancient monuments and health/spa tourism should be evaluated as an entire destination marketing scheme.

Bir turizm merkezinin çekicilik özelliği, destinasyon imajının oluşumunda önemli bir unsurdur. Bu çalışmada, Pamukkale destinasyonu imajnın çekicilik faktörlerinin ve üstünlüklerinin yabancı turistler açısından belirlenmesi ve destinasyon alternatiflerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmaktadır. İmaj değerlendirme konusunun göreceli olmasından ve alternatiflerin belirlenmesi konusunun çok değişkenli karar vermeyi gerektirdiğinden dolayı, araştırmanın yöntemi olarak bulanık kümeler kuramından yararlanılmıştır. Pamukkale ve çevresinin çekicilik faktörlerine göre imajı dört grupta toplanmış olup bunlar sırasıyla; Pamukkale travertenleri, antik kentler, sağlık/SPA turizmi ve alışveriş imkanları olarak belirlenmiştir. Pamukkale travertenleri çekicilik faktörü imajı baskın olduğundan diğer faktörlerin düzeyleri zayıf kalmıştır. Bu nedenle bölge, turizm açısından yaşanılacak yer değil, birkaç saatliğine görülüp dönülecek yer şeklinde algılanmaktadır. Bu algıyı aşmak için Pamukkale travertenleri, antik kentler, sağlık/SPA turizmi fırsatlarının bulunduğu {B-E} noktaları bir bütün destinasyon pazarlanması olarak değerlendirilmelidir.

  • Agrawal, V. P., Kohli, V., & Gupta, S. (1991). Computer Aided Robot Selection: The ‘Multiple Attribute Decision Making’ Approach. International Journal of Production Research, 29(8), 1629-1644. DOI:10.1080/00207549108948036
  • Alhemoud, A. M., & Armstrong, E. G. (1996). Image of Tourism Attractions in Kuwait. Journal of Travel Research, 34(4), 76-80. DOI: 10.1177/004728759603400413
  • Baloğlu, Ş., & Mangaloğlu, M. (2001). Tourism Destination Images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy As Perceived By Us-Based Tour Operators and Travel Agents. Tourism Management, 22, 1-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00030-3
  • Baloğlu, Ş., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A Model of Destination Image Formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868-897. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4
  • Barich, H., & Kotler, P. (1991). A Framework for Marketing Image Management. Sloan Management Review, Winter, 94-104. URL:
  • Buckley, J. J. (1985). Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 17, 233- 247. DOI: 10.1016/0165-0114(85)90090-9
  • Chandra, R., & Newburry, W. (1997). A Cognitive Map of the International Business Field. International Business Review, 6(4), 387-410. DOI: 10.1016/S0969-5931(97)00011-5
  • Chang, D. Y. (1996). Applications of the Extent Analysis Method on Fuzzy AHP. European Journal of Operational Research, 95(3), 649-655. DOI: 10.1016/0377-2217(95)00300-2
  • Chen, C., & Phou, S. (2013). A Closer Look at Destination: Image, Personality, Relationship and Loyalty. Tourism Management, 36, 269-278. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.11.015
  • Chen, S .J., & Chen, S. M. (2005). Aggregating Fuzzy Opinions in the Heterogeneous Group Decision-Making Environment. Cybernetics and Systems, 36(3), 309–338. DOI: 10.1080/01969720590908294
  • Cho, Y. J., Wang, Y., & Hsu, L. L. (2015) Constructing Taiwan's Low-Carbon Tourism Development Suitability Evaluation Indicators. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(6), 658-677. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2015.1068193
  • Çoban, O., & Seçme, G. (2005). Prediction of Socio-Economical Consequences of Privatization at the Firm Level with Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Information Sciences, 169(1/2), 131-154. DOI: 10.1016/j.ins.2004.02.009
  • Dadgostar, B., & Isotalo, R. M. (1992). Factors Affecting Time Spent By Near-Home Tourists in City Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 31, 34-39. DOI: 10.1177/004728759203100206
  • Echtner, C., & Ritchie, J. R. (2003). The Meaning and Measurement of Destination Image. Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(1), 37-48. URL:
  • Eden, C. (1988). Cognitive Mapping. European Journal of Operation Research, 36, 1-13. DOI: 10.1016/0377-2217(88)90002-1
  • Fu, H. H & Tzeng, S. Y. (2016). Applying Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making Approach To Establish Safety-Management System For Hot Spring Hotels. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2016.1175487
  • Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., & Garcia, H. C. (2002). Destination Image: Towards a Conceptual Framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 56-78. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00031-7
  • Gartner, W. C. (1994). Image Formation Process. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2(3), 191-216. DOI: 10.1300/J073v02n02_12
  • Han, M. C., & Terpstra, V. (1988). Country-Of-Origin Effects for Uni-National and Bi-National Products. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(2), 235-255. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490379
  • Han, M. C. (1989). Country Image: Halo or Summary Construct? Journal of Marketing Research, 26, 222-229. DOI: 10.2307/3172608
  • Hasiloglu, S. B. (2012). Evaluation of Turkish Origin Textile Products Image with Fuzzy Logic. Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon, 22(3), 169-176. URL:
  • Horng, J. S., Liu, C. H., Chou, S. F., Yin, Y. S., & Tsai, C. Y. (2014). Developing a Novel Hybrid Model for Industrial Environment Analysis: A Study of the Gourmet and Tourism Industry in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(9), 1044-1069. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2013.837399
  • Huang, J. H., & Peng, K. H. (2012). Fuzzy Rasch Model in TOPSIS: A New Approach for Generating Fuzzy Numbers to Assess the Competitiveness of the Tourism Industries in Asian Countries. Tourism Management, 33(2), 456-465. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.05.006
  • Hunt, J. D. (1975). Image as a Factor in Tourism Development. Journal of Travel Research, 13(3), 1-7. DOI: 10.1177/004728757501300301
  • Hunter, W. C., & Suh, Y. K. (2007). Multimethod Research on Destination Image Perception: Jeju Sanding Stones. Tourism Management, 28(1), 130-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2005.06.013
  • Hwang, C. L., & Yoon, K. (1981). Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods and Applications: A State-Of-The-Art Survey. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Jenkins, O. H. (1999). Understanding and Measuring Tourist Destination Images. International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(1), 1-15. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-1970(199901/02)1:1<55::AID-JTR126>3.0.CO;2-M
  • Kandasamy, W. B. V., & Smarandache, F. (2003). Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Neutrosophic Cognitive Map. USA: Xiquan, Phoenix.
  • Liou, T. S., & Wang, M. J. (1992). Ranking Fuzzy Numbers with Integral Value. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 50, 247-255. DOI: 10.1016/0165-0114(92)90223-Q
  • Milfelner, B., Snoj, B., & Korda, A. P. (2011). Measurement of Perceived Quality, Perceived Value, Image, And Satisfaction Interrelations of Hotel Services: Comparison of Tourists from Slovenia and Italy. Drustvena Istrazivanja, 20(3), 605-624. DOI: 10.5559/di.20.3.01
  • Milman, A., & Pizam, A. (1995). The Role of Awareness and Familiarity with a Destination: The Central Florida Case. Journal of Travel Research, 33(3), 21-27. DOI: 10.1177/004728759503300304
  • Nagashima, A. (1970). A Comparison of Japanese and U.S. Attitudes toward Foreign Products. Journal of Marketing, 34, 68-74. DOI: 10.2307/1250298
  • O’Leary, S., & Deegan, J. (2003). People, Pace, Place: Qualitative and Quantitative Images of Ireland as a Tourism Destination in France. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 213-226. DOI: 10.1177/135676670300900302
  • Özesmi, U., & Özesmi, S. L. (2004). Ecological Models Based on People’s Knowledge: A Multi-Step Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping Approach. Ecological Modelling, 176(1/2), 43-64. DOI: :10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2003.10.027
  • Pike, S. (2002). Destination Image Analysis-A Review of 142 Papers from 1973 to 2000. Tourism Management, 23(5), 541-549. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00005-5
  • Pizam, A., & Milman, A. (1993). Predicting Satisfaction among First Time Visitors to a Destination by Using the Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 12(2), 197-209. DOI: 10.1016/0278-4319(93)90010-7
  • Ruzzier, M. K. (2010). Extending the Tourism Destination Image Concept into Customer-Based Brand Equity for a Tourism Destination. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 23(3), 24-42. DOI: 10.1080/1331677X.2010.11517421
  • Saaty, T. L. (1977). A Scaling Method for Priorities in Hierarchical Structures. Journal of Mathematical Pschology, l5, 234-28l. DOI: 10.1016/0022-2496(77)90033-5
  • Saaty, T. L. (2001). Analytic Hierarchy Process. In S.I. Gass & M.C. Fu (Eds), Encyclopaedia of Operations Research & Management Science (pp.19-28). (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.
  • Sharaiha,Y. M., & Collins, P.Q. (1992). Marketing Jordan as a Tourist Destination: Potential and Complexity. Tourism Management, 13(1), 64-70. DOI: 10.1016/0261-5177(92)90034-5
  • Van Laarhoven, P. J. M., & Pedrycz, W. (1983). A Fuzzy Extension of Saaty's Priority Theory. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 11, 199-227. DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0114(83)80082-7
  • Walmsley, D. J., & Young, M. (1998). Evaluative Images and Tourism: The Use Of Personal Constructs To Describe The Structure Of Destination Images. Journal of Travel Research, 36(3), 65-69. DOI: 10.1177/004728759803600307
  • Yang, J., He, J., & Gu, Y. (2012). The Implicit Measurement of Destination Image: The Application of Implicit Association Tests. Tourism Management, 33(1), 50-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.01.022
  • Zadeh, L. (1965). Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, 8, 338–353. DOI: 10.1016/S0019-9958(65)90241-X
  • Zanakis, S.H., Solomon, A., Wishart, N., & Dublish, S. (1998). Multi-Attribute Decision Making: A Simulation Comparison of Select Methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 107(3), 507-529. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-2217(97)00147-1
  • Zhang, H., Gu, C., Gu, L., & Zhang, Y. (2011). The Evaluation of Tourism Destination Competitiveness by TOPSIS & Information Entropy – A Case in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Tourism Management, 32(2), 443-451. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2010.02.007
Birincil Dil en
Konular İşletme
Dergi Bölümü Araştırma Makalesi

Yazar: Selçuk Burak Haşıloğlu (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Pamukkale University, Turkey
Ülke: Turkey

Yazar: Sanem Alkibay
Kurum: Gazi University, Turkey
Ülke: Turkey

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { pjess409910, journal = {Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-8703}, address = {Pamukkale Üniversitesi}, year = {}, volume = {5}, pages = {57 - 70}, doi = {}, title = {Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors}, key = {cite}, author = {Haşıloğlu, Selçuk Burak and Alkibay, Sanem} }
APA Haşıloğlu, S , Alkibay, S . (). Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors. Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies, 5 (1), 57-70. Retrieved from
MLA Haşıloğlu, S , Alkibay, S . "Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors". Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies 5 (): 57-70 <>
Chicago Haşıloğlu, S , Alkibay, S . "Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors". Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies 5 (): 57-70
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors AU - Selçuk Burak Haşıloğlu , Sanem Alkibay Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 57 EP - 70 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - -2148-8703 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors %A Selçuk Burak Haşıloğlu , Sanem Alkibay %T Assessment of the Pamukkale Destination Image According to Attraction Factors %D 2019 %J Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies %P -2148-8703 %V 5 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Haşıloğlu, Selçuk Burak , Alkibay, Sanem . "Pamukkale destinasyonu imajının çekicilik faktörlerine göre değerlendirilmesi". Pamukkale Journal of Eurasian Socioeconomic Studies 5 / 1 57-70.