Yıl 2015, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, Sayfalar 46 - 60 2015-09-08

An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities


256 368

The aim of this study was to examine the university students’ attitudes towards leisure activities and to compare the participants' attitudes levels according to different variables. In total, 261 (nfemale=147; age=21.20±2.21, nmale=114; age=22.31±2.80) university students that study in different universities in the Central Anatolia participated in the study. “Leisure Attitudes Scale” (LAS) developed by Ragheb and Beard (1982) and adapted to Turkish by Akgül and Gürbüz (2010) was used in the study. The attitudes of the participants towards the leisure time activities are evaluated by the Likert type scale over 5. LAS is made up of 36 articles and 3 sub-dimensions such as cognitive (12), affective (12), and behavioral (12). In order to determine whether the attitude scores of the participants vary depending on the independent variables, t-test and MANOVA were used for independent groups in the analysis of the data. In the light of the findings of the study significant differences were detected in the attitude scores of the participants according to their sex and ages (p<.05).  The scores of attitudes of the women and the participants between ages 18-22 are more on the positive side towards the leisure activities compared to the rest of the participants. Moreover, according to the results of the analysis, the attitudes of the individuals who take part in the physical activities are more positive than the one who do not. Overall, highest attitude scores of the participants towards leisure activities are on the cognitive aspect.
Leisure, attitude, university students
  • Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding the Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Akgül, B. M., Gürbüz, B. (2010). Leisure Attitude Scale: The Study of Reliability and Validity. 11th International Sports Sciences Congress, 55, 10-12 November, Antalya, Turkey.
  • Anderson, N. (1998). Work and Leisure, Florence, KY: Routledge.
  • Aslan, N. (2009). An examination of family leisure and family satisfaction among traditional Turkish families. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(2), 205–223.
  • Balcı, V. (2003). Ankara’daki Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Boş Zaman Etkinliklerine Katılımlarının Araştırılması. Milli Eğitim Dergisi, 158, 161-173.
  • Caldwell, L.L., Baldwin, C.K., Walls, T., Smith, E. (2004). Preliminary Effects of a Leisure Education Program to Promote Healthy Use of Free Time among Middle School Adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 3rd Quarter, 36(3), 310-335.
  • Chih-Mou Hsieh. (1998). Leisure attitudes, motivation, participation, and satisfaction: Test on a model of leisure behavior. PhD Diss., Indiana University.
  • Crandall, R. (1980). Motivation for leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 12 (1), 45-54.
  • Crandall, R., Slivken, K. (1980). Leisure attitudes and their measurement. In S.E Iso-Ahola (Ed.), Social Psychology Perspectives On Leisure And Recreation: pp. 261-248. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publishers.
  • Cunningham, G.B., Kwon, H. (2003). The theory of planned behavior and intentions to attend a sport event. Sport Management Review, 6, 127-145.
  • Davis, K.E., Jackson, K.L., Kronenfeld, J.J., Blair, S.N. (1984). Intent to participation in work site health promotion activities: A model of risk factors and psychosocial variables. Health Education Quarterly, 11, 361-377.
  • Davison, K.K., Lawson, C.T. (2006). Do attributes in the physical environment influence children’s physical activity? A review of the literature. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3, 19. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-19.
  • Doğan, T. (2013). Beş Faktör Kişilik Özellikleri ve Öznel İyi Oluş, Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 14 (1), 56-64.
  • Doğanay, A., Sarı, M. (2006). Öğrencilerin Üniversitedeki Yaşam Kalitesine İlişkin Algılarının Demokratik Yaşam Kültürü Çerçevesinde Değerlendirilmesi (Çukurova Üniversitesi Örneği). Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 4(2), 107-128.
  • Dost, M.T. (2010). An Examination of Subjective Well-Being and Life Satisfaction of Students Attending to Universities in South Africa and Turkey. Education and Science, 35 (158), 75-89.
  • Drakou, A., Tzetzis, G., Mamantzi, K. (2008). Leisure constraints experienced by university students in Greece. The Sport Journal 11(1).
  • Driver, B., Brown, P. J., Peterson, G. (1991). Benefits of leisure (Ed.). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.
  • Dzewaltowski, D.A. (1989). Towards a model of exercise motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 251-269.
  • Dzewaltowski, D. A., Noble, J. M. and Shaw, J. M. (1990). Physical activity participation: Social cognitive theory versus the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 388–405.
  • Edginton, C. R. (2007). The world leisure organization: promoting social, cultural and economic transformation. Licere, Belo Horizonte, 10.
  • Erkuş, A. (2003). Psikometri Üzerine Yazılar. Türk Psikologlar Dernegi Yayınları, 24, Ankara.
  • Feltz, D. L. (1982). Path analysis of the causal elements of Bandura's theory of self efficacy and an anxiety-based model of avoidance behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 764–781.
  • Feltz, D. L. (1988). Self-confidence and sports performance. In K. B. Pandolf (ed.). Exercise and sports science reviews. New York: Academic Press, pp. 75–109.
  • Feltz, D.L. (1992). Understanding motivation in sport: A self-efficacy perspective. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise: pp. 93-106. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.
  • Fishbein, M., Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Fişek, G.D. (1982). Psychopathology and the Turkish family: A family systems theory analysis. In Ç. Kagitcibasi (Ed.) Sex roles, family & community in Turkey. Indiana University Turkish Studies, pp. 295-321.
  • Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social Psychology and Social Language Learning: The Role of Motivation and Attitudes. Edward Arnold Inc., London.
  • Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. and Biddle, S. J. H. (2001). The influence of self-efficacy and past behavior on the physical activity intentions of young people. Journal of Sport Science, 19, 711- 725.
  • Henderson, K.A., Ainsworth, B. (2001). Researching leisure and physical activity with women of color: Issues and emerging questions. Leisure Sciences, 23, 21.
  • Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1980). The Social Psychology of Leisure and Recreation. Dubuque, IA: WC. C. Brown.
  • Iso-Ahola, S.E., Weissinger, E. (1990). Perceptions of boredom in leisure: conceptualization, reliability, and validity of the leisure boredom scale. Journal of Leisure Research, 22, 1-17.
  • İnceoglu, M. (1993). Tutum algı iletişim. Ankara: V Yayınları.
  • Kâgıtçıbaşı, Ç. (1996). Family and human development across cultures: A view from the other side. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Kâgıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2002). A model of family change in cultural context. In W. J. Lonner, D. L: Dirmel, S. A. Hayes and D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. Center for Cross- Cultural Research, Western Washington Un. Bellingham, Washington, USA.
  • Menec, V. (2003). The relationship between everyday activities and successful aging: A 6-year longitudinal study. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 58 (2), S74-S82.
  • McAuley, E. 1992. The role of efficacy cognitions in the prediction of exercise of behavior in middle- aged adults. Journal of Behavior Medicine, 15, 65-88.
  • McAuley, E., Courneya, K.S. (1993). Adherence to exercise and physical activity as health-promoting behaviors: Attitudinal and self-efficacy influences. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 2, 65- 77.
  • Menec, V. (2003). The relationship between everyday activities and successful aging: A 6-year longitudinal study. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 58(2), 74-S82.
  • Morgan, K., Bath, P. A. (1998). Customary physical activity and psychological wellbeing: A longitudinal study. Age and Aging, 27, 35-40.
  • Neulinger, J. (1981). The psychology of leisure (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Thomas.
  • Nippol, M.A., Duthie, J.K. and Larsen, J. (2005). Literacy as a Leisure Activity: Free-Time Preferences of Older Children and Young Adolescents. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 36(2), 93-102.
  • Onat, U. (2001). Gecekondu Toplumunda Boş Zaman Sorunu ve Toplum Merkezleri. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 12(2), 77-87.
  • Özgüven, İ.E. (1998). Psikolojik testler. Ankara: PDREM Yayınları.
  • Papanastasiou, C. (2002). School, teaching and family influence on student attitudes toward science: based on TIMSS data for Cyprus. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 28, 71-86.
  • Ragheb, M.G., & Tate, R.L. (1993). A behavior model of leisure participation based on leisure attitude, motivation and satisfaction. Leisure Studies, 12, 61-71.
  • Ragheb, M.G., Beard, J.G. (1982). Measuring leisure attitude. Journal of Leisure Research, 14(2), 155- 167.
  • Ruuskanen, J. M., Ruopilla, I. (1995). Physical activity and psychological well-being among people aged 65 to 84 years. Age and Ageing 24, 292-296.
  • Sarol, H., Gürbüz, B., Çimen, Z. (2012). An Examination of Attitudes toward the Leisure Activities: A Sample of Adults. 12th International Sports Sciences Congress, 1870-1873, 12-14 December, Denizli, Turkey.
  • Seçgin, H. (1996). Ortaöğretim Kurumlarında Eğitsel Kol Çalışmalarının Boş Zaman Değerlendirmesine Katkıları (Izmir Örneği), Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi), İzmir.
  • Selim, S. (2008). Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey. Social Indicators Research, 88 (3), 531–562.
  • Shaw, S.M., Caldwell, L.L., Kleiber, D.A. (1996). Boredom, Stress and Social Control in the Daily Activities of Adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(4), 274-292.
  • Sherif, M., Sherif, C.W. (1996). Sosyal psikolojiye giriş II (Çev: M. Atakay ve A. Yılmaz). İstanbul: Sosyal Yayınlar.
  • Smith, M. B. (1968). Attitude Change International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Crowell and Mac Millan.
  • Soyer, F. (1997). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Boş zaman Alışkanlıkları ve Sportif Eğilimlerinin Mesleki Yönelişlerine Göre Karşılaştırılması. Erciyes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Kayseri.
  • Suzer, M. (1997). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Sosyal ve Ekonomik Özelliklerine Göre Boş Zaman Faaliyetlerini Değerlendirme Biçimleri, (Pamukkale Üniversitesi Örneği), Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Ankara.
  • Teixeria, A., Freire, T. (2013). The leisure attitude scale: Psychometric properties of a short version for adolescents and young adults. Leisure/Loisir, (37), 57-67
  • Torkildsen G. (2005). Recreation and leisure management. 5th Ed. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
  • Trail, G. T., Anderson, D. F., Fink, J. S. (2002). Examination of gender differences in importance of and satisfaction with venue factors at intercollegiate basketball games. International Sports Journal, 6(1), 51–64
  • Watson, J. F. (1996). The impact of leisure attitude and motivation on the physical recreation/leisure participation of college students. PhD. Dissertation, Purdue University.
  • Wilson, A. and Arnold, M.(1997). Promoting Recreation and Leisure Activities for Individuals. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 24(1), 76-79.
Birincil Dil en


Bibtex @ { psbd219411, journal = {Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {1309-0356}, address = {Pamukkale Üniversitesi}, year = {2015}, volume = {6}, pages = {46 - 60}, doi = {}, title = {An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities}, key = {cite}, author = {KAYA, SABRI} }
APA KAYA, S . (2015). An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities. Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 6 (3), 46-60. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/psbd/issue/20588/219411
MLA KAYA, S . "An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities". Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 6 (2015): 46-60 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/psbd/issue/20588/219411>
Chicago KAYA, S . "An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities". Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 6 (2015): 46-60
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities AU - SABRI KAYA Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 46 EP - 60 VL - 6 IS - 3 SN - -1309-0356 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities %A SABRI KAYA %T An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities %D 2015 %J Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi %P -1309-0356 %V 6 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD KAYA, SABRI . "An Examination of University Students’ Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities". Pamukkale Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 6 / 3 (Eylül 2015): 46-60.