Arama Sonucu: 1155 Aranan: sulfur dioxide
Özet: The rapid industrialization process that had originated from England to foster a huge world population has almost reached its target and at the same time it has imputed a cost upon the world lives in terms of its by-product. The most alarming factor which is one of the components of the Green House Gases is the Carbon Di Oxide (CO2) the emission of which has grown over time in parallel way of industrial growth irrespective of the categories of the countries. The present study has tried to raise the issue in a micro level for the states of India that has experienced a shift in its economic policy paradigm in the name of economic liberalization in the period 1991-92. The aim of the present study is twofold-one is to examine whether the states are converging in CO2 emissions and the other is to study whether the states are getting unequal over time in this respect. The study observes that the states are insignificantly β converging and significantly σ converging for the period 1980-2000. Segregating the data for pre reform (1980-91) and post reform (1992-2000) periods the study further observes that the states are undoubtedly converging in the former period but diverging in the later period at least by the σ convergence. The study also found that there is growing concentration in CO2 emissions over post reform era which is a notion of interstate inequality.
Cilt 6 , Sayı 2 , Oca 2013 , Sayfalar 1 - 12
Ramesh Chandra Das
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Cilt 34 , Sayı 2-3 , Oca 2006 , Sayfalar 9 - 13
Burcu ONAT, Ülkü ŞAHİN, Cuma BAYAT
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Süperkritik karbondioksit (scCO), sıvılara benzer bir yoğunluk sergilemekte ve bu özelliğiyle hidrofob boyaların çözülmesi için bir avantaj sağlamaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra süperkritik karbondioksitin, gazlara benzer düşük viskozite ve difüzyon özellikleri sayesinde boyama işlemleri suyla yapılan boyamalardan daha kısa sürede tamamlanmaktadır. Yeni boyama tekniklerinden biri olan süperkritik karbondioksit ile boyama geleneksel yöntemlerle karşılaştırıldığında hiç su kullanılmaması gibi büyük bir avantajının yanında daha az enerji ve kimyasal tüketimiyle de üretim maliyetlerinde %50’ye varan azalmalar sağlamaktadır. Özellikle sentetik kumaşların süperkritik karbondioksit ile boyama yönteminin bu avantajları, sektörün lider firmalarının üretimlerini bu tip boyamalara kaydırmaktadır. Bu makalede süperkritik karbondioksit ortamında boyamanın prensibi, avantaj ve dezavantajları anlatılmış, literatürde yer alan çalışmalar ve bu konudaki ticari gelişmeler özetlenmiştir.
Cilt 20 , Sayı 90 , Oca 2013
Hakkı Yasin ODABAŞOĞLU, Osman Ozan AVİNÇ, Arzu YAVAŞ
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Cilt 13 , Sayı 63 , Oca 2006
Nalan DEVRENT, A. Safa ÖZCAN, Güngör DURUR
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
The purpose of this article is to review the potential applicability of the environmentally friendly metallurgical production technologies and potential replacement of traditional energy sources with renewable energy sources in this sector. The materials presented in this article lead to the following conclusions: i) the metallurgical production in Europe can be considered as one of the most important sectors forming a high added value. Simultaneously, the metallurgical production is characterized by relatively high energy consumption and generates a significant contribution to carbon dioxide emissions; ii) the metallurgical enterprises have to compete not only among themselves but also with other companies engaged in production of the substitute products (e.g. plastic pipes); therefore, the production and technological modernization and environmental optimization of the activity of the metallurgical enterprises in Europe is one of the ways to increase the competitiveness and to reduce the expense content; iii) the use of technologies that virtually eliminate the generation of carbon dioxide in the processing of iron ore allows to reduce the average level of greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 20-25%; iv) the integration of production technology characterized by very low CO2 emissions with the use of solar thermal energy technologies to provide the energy needs of the metallurgical production can significantly reduce the level of energy consumption of the metallurgical plants by an average of 18-31%.
Cilt 7 , Sayı 2 , Oca 2017 , Sayfalar 310 - 315
Mihail Nikolaevich Dudin, Konstantin Yurievich Reshetov, Victor Ivanovich Mysachenko, Natalia Nikolaevna Mironova, Olga Vladimirovna Divnenko
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Bu çalışmada, yaş mekanokimyasal işlem bir planetary bilyalı değirmende sölestin (SrSO4)-(NH4)2CO3-H2Okarışımından SrCO3 ve (NH4)2SO4 elde etmek için geleneksel (tekli) yöntemle uygulandı. X-ışını kırınımı, Fourierdönüşümlü kızılötesi spektroskopi, taramalı elektron mikroskobu ve kimyasal analiz yaş öğütme sırasında oluşanürünleri analiz etmek için kullanıldı. Hidrometalurjik işlem, bir planeter değirmende öğütme süresi, bilya ile öğütülmüşmalzeme kütle oranı, (NH4)2CO3 ile SrSO4 mol oranı ve değirmen dönme hızını incelemek için gerçekleştirildi.Optimum koşullar altında, SrCO3’ın %100’e yaklaşan bir dönüşümü elde edildi.  
Cilt 21 , Sayı 3 , Oca 2017 , Sayfalar 278 - 284
Deniz Bingöl, Salih Aydoğan, Seda Karayünlü Bozbaş
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Potassium methyl xanthate and its complex [Pd(Me-Xanthate)2] were synthesized at room temperature under stirring conditions. The ligand and the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR (1H, 13C) and XRD. NMR data revealed that potassium methyl xanthate acts as a bidentate specie and the complex exhibits 4-coordinated geometry in solution. In solid state, the palladium atom is coordinated to the 2 sulfur atoms of the xanthate ligand and the complex exhibits distorted square planar geometry.
Cilt 33 , Sayı 2 , Oca 2009 , Sayfalar 307 - 312
Saira SHAHZADI, Saqib ALI, Rehana JABEEN and M. Kaleem KHOSA
Özet Çevirileri Öz
Çalışma,  1-metilsiklopropen (1-MCP) uygulamasının, Angeleno erik çeşidinde depolama süresi ve kalitesi üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amacı ile yürütülmüştür. Sert olum döneminde derilen meyveler, hasattan sonra 1 °C’de (meyve iç sıcaklığı 2-3 °C’ye düşünceye kadar yaklaşık 6 saat) tazyikli hava ile ön soğutma işlemine tabi tutulmuştur. Ön soğutmadan sonra meyveler 2 gruba ayrılmıştır. Birinci grup meyveler hiçbir uygulamaya tabi tutulmazken (kontrol), ikinci grup meyvelere oda sıcaklığında 12 saat süreyle 0.625 ppm dozunda 1-MCP uygulanmıştır. Uygulamadan sonra her iki meyve grubu da modifiye atmosfer poşetlerine yerleştirilerek 0 ºC sıcaklıkta ve % 90 ± 5 oransal nem koşullarında 4 ay depolanmıştır. Depolamanın başlangıcında ve aylık periyotlarla soğukta muhafazadan çıkarılan meyve örneklerinde ağırlık kaybı, SÇKM, TEA miktarı, meyve sertliği, meyve kabuk rengi, solunum hızı, etilen üretim miktarı ve poşet içi gaz bileşimi ölçümleri ile duyusal değerlendirmeler (dış görünüş, tat ve iç kararması) yapılmıştır. Raf ömrü çalışmaları için de aynı analizler yinelenmiştir. 1-MCP+MAP uygulaması hem soğukta muhafaza hem de raf ömrü süresince etilen üretimi, solunum hızı ve ağırlık kaybını kontrol grubuna oranla önemli ölçüde azaltmıştır. Meyve sertliğinin korunması açısından da 1-MCP+MAP uygulamasının olumlu etkileri olduğu belirlenmiştir.  Sonuç olarak 1-MCP uygulanmasının Angeleno erik çeşidinde derim sonrası ömrün uzatılması ve kalitenin korunması açısından etkili olduğu saptanmıştır.
Cilt 53 , Sayı 1 , Oca 2016 , Sayfalar 43 - 50
Derya ERBAŞ, Mehmet Ali Ali KOYUNCU
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Bu çalışmada 2,6-di-tert-bütilfenolün (DTBP) çeşitli oksidantlarla [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-karboksifenil)porfirinato]kobalt(II) ([CoTCPP]) tarafından katalizlenen oksidasyonu araştırılmıştır. Oksidant olarak potasyum peroksimonosülfat (okzon), tert-bütilhidroperoksit (ButOOH) veya hidrojen peroksit (H2O2) kullanılmış ve reaksiyonlar hacimce %10-15 su içeren metanol çözeltilerinde oda sıcaklığında yürütülmüştür. Oksidasyona substrat, katalizör ve oksidant derişimlerinin etkileri incelenmiştir. Reaksiyon ürünleri gaz kromatografisi-kütle spektrometresiyle (GC-MS) belirlenmiş ve ürünlerin ve reaksiyona girmemiş DTBP miktarları gaz kromatografisi (GC) ile elde edilen kromatogramlardaki pik alanlarından belirlenmiştir. DTBP oksidasyonunda oksidant olarak okzon ve ButOOH kullanıldığında [CoTCPP] katalitik aktivite göstermiştir. H2O2 varlığında ise [CoTCPP] katalitik aktivite göstermemiştir.
Cilt 21 , Sayı 6 , Oca 2017 , Sayfalar 1307 - 1316
Yasemin Çimen, Tuğçe Günay
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Pirol ve türevleri organik ve biyokimyada önemli heterosiklik bileşiklerdir ve birçok doğal üründe bulunmaktadırlar. Bu çalışmada, porfirin vb. gibi doğal ürünlerin sentezinde kullanılabilecek bir bileşik olan 3,4-dietilpirolün sentezi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaç için ilk önce bir α-halojenleme reaksiyonu ile bütanalden 2-bromobütanal elde edilmiş ve yine bütanal, morfolin ile etkileştirilerek 1-morfolino-1-büten enamini sentezlenmiştir. 2-Bromobutanal ve 1-morfolino-1-büten uygun şartlarda etkileştirilerek 2,3-dietilsüksinaldehit elde edilmiştir. 2,3-Dietilsüksinaldehitin amonyum karbonat ile reaksiyonu sonucu 3,4-dietilpirol sentezlenmiştir.
Cilt 10 , Sayı 1 , Oca 2006 , Sayfalar 21 - 24
B. DEDE, A. GÜLCE
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Production of defect-matching scaffolds is the most critical step in custom artificial bone applications. Three dimensional printing (3DP) is one of the best techniques particularly for custom designs on artificial bone applications because of the high controllability and design independency. Our long-term aim is to implant an artificial custom bone that is cultured with patient's own mesenchymal stem cells after determining defect architecture on patient's bone by using CT-scan and printing that defect-matching 3D scaffold with appropriate nontoxic materials. In this study, preliminary results of strength and cytotoxicity measurements of 3D printed scaffolds with modified calcium sulfate composite powder (MCSCP) were presented. CAD designs were created and MCSCP were printed by a 3D printer (3DS, Visijet, PXL Core). Some samples were covered with salt solution in order to harden the samples. MCSCP and salt coated MCSCP were the two experimental groups in this study. Cytotoxicity and mechanical experiments were performed after surface examination withscanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope. Tension tests were performed for MCSCP and salt coated MCSCP samples. The 3D scaffolds were sterilized with ethylene oxide gas sterilizer, ventilated and conditioned with DMEM (10% FBS). L929 mouse fibroblast cells were cultured on scaffolds (3 repetitive) and cell viability was determined using MTT analysis. According to the mechanical results, the MCSCP group stands until average 71,305 N, while salt coated MCSCP group stands until 21,328N. Although the strength difference between two groups is statistically significant (p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U), elastic modulus is not (MCSCP=1,186Pa, salt coated MCSCP=1,169Pa, p=0.445). Cell viability (MTT analysis) results on day 1, 3, and 5 demonstrated thatscaffolds hadno toxic effect to the L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Consequently, 3D printed samples with MCSCP could potentially be a strong alternative (biocompatible) for current custom made scaffolds. Desired strength can be acquired with cell inoculation and cultivation of samples in a bioreactor for ossification.
Cilt 18 , Sayı 3 , Oca 2014 , Sayfalar 1 - 9
Betül ALDEMİR, Serkan DİKİCİ, Şükrü ÖZTÜRK, Ozan KAHRAMAN, Aylin ÜRKMEZ, Hakan OFLAZ
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Kavramlar fen öğretiminde önemli bir yer tutar. Fen eğitiminin amaçlarından biri, öğrencilerin bu kavramları ezberlemeden anlamlı olarak öğrenmelerini ve yaşantılarında gereksinimleri doğrultusunda kullanmalarını sağlamaktır. Kavram öğretimi yapılırken öğrencilerin kavram yanılgılarına sahip olup olmadıklarının dikkate alınması öğretimin verimliliğini arttırır. Öğrencilerin kavram hakkında neler anladıklarını, zihinlerinde nasıl canlandırdıklarını, kavram yanılgılarının olup olmadığını anlama tekniklerinden biri de çizimlerdir. Çizim, öğrencinin nasıl cevaplayacağı konusunda küçük sınırlamalar dışında sınırlama koymayan açık bir tekniktir. Çizimlerin amacı, öğretmenlerin diğer anlamayı inceleme yöntemleri ile ortaya çıkaramadığı durumların ortaya konulmasını da sağlamaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, 6.sınıf öğrencilerinin fen bilimleri dersinde bitkilerin büyüme ve gelişmesine etki eden faktörler hakkındaki bilgilerini ve varsa kavram yanılgılarını çizimler aracılığıyla ortaya çıkarmaktır. Bu amaçla, 6. sınıf “Bitki ve Hayvanlarda Üreme, Büyüme ve Gelişme” ünitesinde ilgili kazanım işlenmeden önce ve sonra öğrencilerden bitkilerin büyümesine etki eden faktörleri çizim yoluyla anlatmaları istenmiştir. İkincil veri toplama kaynağını da öğrencilerle çizimleri hakkında yapılan bireysel görüşmeler oluşturmuştur. Araştırma grubu Sakarya ili, Hendek ilçesinde bulunan bir devlet ortaokulunda 6. sınıfta öğrenim görmekte olan 23 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Öğrencilerin çizimlerinde çoğunlukla su, güneş ve gübreye yer verdikleri, iki öğrencinin oksijeni de çizimlerine yansıttığı, ancak hiçbir öğrencinin karbondioksite yer vermediği görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak öğrencilerin bitkilerin büyüme ve gelişmesi için gerekli unsurlardan su ve ışığı çizimlerine yansıttıkları, ayrıca çizimlerde bazı kavram yanılgılarına da rastlandığı görülmüştür.
Cilt 7 , Sayı 4 , Oca 2017 , Sayfalar 706 - 719
Aslı ÖZTÜRK, Aysun ÖZTUNA KAPLAN
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential biological activities of black cumin seed oil (BCSO) and wheat germ oil (WGO) on different cell lines. Initially, commercially available BCSO and WGO obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction were analyzed in terms of tocopherol, aliphatic alcohols, and thymoquinone content via HPLC and GC analysis. Cell free antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of both oils were detected by DPPH assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. As well as the DPPH assay, the protective effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by microscopic observation of ROS generation in NIH-3T3 cells with or without oil samples by using an oxidation-sensitive fluorescent dye, H2DCFDA. Cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT assay. In the case of BCSO, after exposing cells to 0.025--1.0 mg/mL and 1.0-100 $\mu $g/mL concentrations for 24 h, the IC$_{50}$ values of BCSO were 0.58, 0.51, 0.47, and 0.36 mg/mL for NIH-3T3, A549, U87, and HeLa cells, respectively. On the other hand, concentrations of WGO lower than 0.1 mg/mL did not cause a decrease in cell viability for all cell lines. Apoptotic and necrotic rates of these cell lines were investigated via flow cytometry. BCSO also exhibited proliferative efficacy for NIH-3T3 cells.
Cilt 39 , Sayı 4 , Oca 2015 , Sayfalar 801 - 812
DİDEM AĞ ŞELECİ, ZİNAR PINAR GÜMÜŞ, MURAT YAVUZ, MUHARREM ŞELECİ, REBECCA BONGARTZ, FRANK STAHL, HAKAN COŞKUNOL, SUNA TİMUR, THOMAS SCHEPER
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
This study reports, for the first time, the fabrication of electrospun Cu$_{2}$ZnSnS$_{4}$ (CZTS) nanofibers using metal acetate precursors. Viscous poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solution containing acetate or chloride salts of copper, zinc, and tin was electrospun onto a conductive substrate. The PVP nanofibers that have a mixture of metal salts were annealed at elevated temperatures. After calcination, these nanofibers were treated with the sulfur source and then annealed again in order to generate CZTS nanofibers. The CZTS nanofibers generated from acetate and chloride salts were characterized and compared. Belt-like and wire-like nanofibers were obtained when using metal acetate and chloride precursors, respectively.
Cilt 39 , Sayı 4 , Oca 2015 , Sayfalar 897 - 903
BURAK ZAFER BÜYÜKBEKAR, FARUK ÖZEL, HÜSEYİN ŞAKALAK, HALİT ÇAVUŞOĞLU, MUSTAFA ERSÖZ, MAHMUT KUŞ, MUSTAFA SELMAN YAVUZ
Özet Çevirileri Öz
Baia Mare, the former mining and metallurgical industry capital of Romania, is one of the most problematic areas in the country in terms of historical pollution and its consequences. The present paper, as the second part of a complex three-piece study, aims to analyze the air quality evolution in Baia Mare between 1995 and 2006. In the previous piece, the first of this series, we provided an overview of the sources of historical air pollution in Baia Mare. In the third and final scientific paper, we will analyze the effects of this chronic pollution on human health. This article constitutes an analysis of the air quality in Baia Mare, representing a historical investigation of this important environmental issue in the city’s area. Our work updates and expands the body of information provided by previous papers on the topic of environmental pollution in Baia Mare, its purpose being to highlight the chronic air pollution with sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, suspended and sedimentary particulate matters, as well as heavy metals between 1995 and 2006. As a result of the above, it can be concluded that the air quality in Baia Mare in 1995 – 2006 was especially critical due to high concentrations of particulate matters presenting high lead and cadmium content, as well as high sulphur dioxide concentrations. These pollutants were generated by mining and metallurgical units (Remin, Phoenix/Cuprom and Romplumb Corporations), alongside other factors: tailing dumps and tailing ponds in the Baia Mare area, where the particulates were spread around by the air currents; industrial and residential heating equipments with solid fuel; road traffic, including road dust resuspension; mix-asphalt installations; woodworking etc. The calm weather conditions, unfavourable to the dispersion of pollutants in the Baia Mare area, have also contributed to the air quality deterioration. However, for the selected timeframe, the pollutant evolution tendency in the local atmosphere showed a decrease of the heavy metal and sulphur dioxide concentrations, which was a result of reduced productive activity for all the local heavy-polluters and not due to the investments aimed at improving urban air quality, which did not lead to any significant changes. Currently, Remin and Romplumb Corporations are insolvent and Cuprom Corporation is bankrupt. 
Cilt 3 , Sayı 9 , Oca 2017 , Sayfalar 744 - 753
Valentina-Mariana Manoiu, Razvan Madalin Spiridon, Marina Antonescu
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Sri Lanka is facing severe environmental problems such as air and water pollution due to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. Because there have not been many studies on heavy metal pollution in Sri Lanka, the present study attempts to contribute to the literature a determination of metal pollution using indicators found in lichen specimens. Our study utilised energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine element concentrations resulting from air pollution in the lichen species Heterodermia speciosa Wulfen. These samples, collected from Colombo and Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, were analysed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method in order to determine the concentrations of 13 different elements. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis was applied to the elemental analysis of lichens using the method of multiple standard addition. Our qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained potassium, calcium, titanium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, bromine, rubidium, strontium, yttrium, and gallium. Samples from the environment around Colombo, which is a highly congested urban area with much industrial development, were found to be more polluted when compared with Kurunegala, a city that is less congested and without industries. Concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, and Fe were always higher than other elemental concentrations in the lichens we analysed, a fact attributed to the proximity to the sea or exposed earth crustal sources. From the elements reported from the 2 cities, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb were reported at concentrations higher than background levels. Levels of Pb and Zn in samples from Colombo were higher than those from Kurunegala, reflecting the increased vehicular traffic. This study reveals that the common lichen species Heterodermia speciosa can be used as an indicator lichen to analyse the pollution level and other elements in the atmosphere.
Cilt 35 , Sayı 4 , Oca 2011 , Sayfalar 439 - 446
Patikiri Arachchilage Don Hasantha Nayan GUNATHILAKA
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Cilt 12 , Sayı 3 , Oca 2012 , Sayfalar 161 - 169
Tevfik Ziya KULOĞLU, Glen W. ARMSTRONG
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
It is estimated that the oil will be sufficient for us for a couple of generations of humanity. Forbes Magazine estimates we will run out of it between 2055 and 2070 (How Much Oil Does the World Have Left, 2015). Also, in an International Business Times a more specific date is given i.e. 2067 (World Energy Day 2014: How Much Oil is Left and How Long Will It Last, 2014). The numbers stand for proved reserves, of course, as new discoveries arise and technological recoverability upsurges, we may see a modification in these estimations.And for coal, the most copious among fellow fossil fuels with proved reserves of exceeding 841 billion tons, and almost 8 billion tons of it is used in the world each year (World Energy Council, 2016). World Coal Association gives a more optimistic datum on this issue stating the proven coal reserves worldwide is 892 billion tons that would last for another 110 years whereas oil and natural gas would deplete by half this time (Where is coal found, no date). In summary, it is easy to say that coal will be above and underground for many more decades to come.According to 2006 figures, Turkey’s coal reserves are 4.2 billion tons in total and 3.9 billion tons of it are subbituminous and lignite; and, 0.3 billion tons of the reserves is anthracite and bituminous (BP Statistical review of world energy June 2007, 2007). Turkey extracts 77 million tons of coal annually (Statistical Review of World Energy 2008, 2008). A more up to date shares that Turkey’s coal reserves are about 8.7 billion tons and the yearly coal production is the same as in the older report (World Energy Resources: 2013 Survey, 2013). In addition, The Ministry for Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) of Turkey states that there has a giant leap in proven lignite reserves of the country during the decade between 2005 and 2015, bringing lignite reserves from 8.3 billion tons to above 15 billion tons (MENR, 2015).
, Sayfalar 88 - 100
Fatih Temiz
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Density Functional calculations (DFT) have been used to explore the potential energy profiles of H2, CO, and CO2 activation reactions by vinyl carbene structure 1. The reactions of vinyl carbene 1 with CO2 was proposed to yield a variety of possible products (3−5) depending on its selectivity. The DFT calculations established that the proposed reactions of 1 with CO2 proceed in a concerted or stepwise manners to form 3 and 5. However, that of CO reaction occur in only concerted fashion for the proposed products 15 and 16. Furthermore, the compound 1 is found to be most reactive than 5 and 16 towards H2 with the required lower energy barrier. Finally, the most dominant routes are determined to be formation processes of 3, 4, and 10.
Cilt 5 , Sayı 1 , Oca 2017 , Sayfalar 91 - 99
Cem Burak YILDIZ
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Abstract In this paper is proposed a method to remove the hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine. This method is based on the absorption of hydrogen sulfide by Lewatit TP 208. Soda lime cartilage is commonly used in submarine for removing of moisture and carbon dioxide in air. In this process soda lime cartilage was combined with Lewatit TP 208. The amount of Lewatit TP 208 required for 710 m3 air of submarine was 11 kg. The problem for submarine is hydrogen sulfide contents of seawater during in submerged condition. The proposal technique can remove of moisture and hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine. This process is the first record to remove the hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine.
Cilt 15 , Sayı 2 , Oca 2009 , Sayfalar 87 - 98
Kasım Cemal Güven and Nazım Çubukçu
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
A potential solution to adequate and sustainable electricity supply problems in most developing countries is dependent on proper harnessing of solar (radiant) energy. Owing to the over dependence on fossil-fuel based energy, there is an exponential rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere, thereby causing severe environmental degradation and ozone layer depletion. This paper seeks to apply the readily available radiant energy source to solar water heating, and establish possible economic benefits to its use in domestic applications for residents of Covenant University campus. The microcontroller-based active solar water heating system (ASWHS) is designed to effectively absorb radiant energy using solar collectors, and store it as hot water in a water tank via a direct current (DC) circulation pump powered by a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. The design also incorporates an auxiliary electric heater which is put to use only when there is insufficient radiant energy. A case study is reported to show the importance of the ASWHS for domestic water heating. The maximum design efficiency and the expected energy output of the solar collector throughout its working life is 79.94% and 498,225kWh respectively. A reduced dependence on grid supply and/or fossil-fuel based generator sets during hot water demand periods is recorded using the ASWHS with a high payback period of 15 years; and a lower unit cost (US$0.01/kWh) of the ASWHS makes it more economically viable as compared to the unit cost (US$0.18/kWh) of the grid supply for the same amount of energy consumed. 
Cilt 3 , Sayı 4 , Oca 2013 , Sayfalar 837 - 845
Ishioma Ani Odigwe, Oluwakorede Olakunle Ologun, Oluwaseyi Olatokun, Awelewa Ajibola Ayokunle, Ayoade Felix Agbetuyi, Samuel Adekunle Isaac
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
This paper reports absorption-based CO2 sensing of the pH-active Schiff base 2-[(2-hydroxymethylphenylimino) methyl]-5-bromo-phenol (SB) in an ethyl cellulose (EC) matrix with and without Teflon coating. The CO2 sensitivity of the SB dye in the EC matrix was evaluated in the presence of nonadecafluorodecanoic acid and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide. When exposed to CO2, the sensing films exhibited 76% of overall relative signal change and responded to CO2 over a wide range: 1%-100 % (v/v). However, the slope of the spectral response between 1% and 5% (v/v) is more significant. The response time (t90) was 15 s, and limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3% (v/v) CO2. The stability of SB in the EC matrix was excellent, and when stored in the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in signal intensity after 6 months. Our stability tests are still in progress.
Cilt 36 , Sayı 4 , Oca 2012 , Sayfalar 503 - 514
Sevinç Zehra TOPAL, Kadriye ERTEKİIN, Berrin YENİIGÜL, Ayşe ERÇAĞ
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
Several studies on Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) in the literature search for the optimal cycle parameters and working fluids that maximize the net power output. Only few studies carry out a preliminary turbine design to calculate an accurate value of turbine efficiency, but this is done only after the cycle thermodynamic optimization is performed assuming a fixed and somewhat arbitrary value of turbine efficiency. Instead, a new design optimization procedure of ORCs is proposed here which embeds correlations for the design efficiency of both axial and radial turbines. The correlations are obtained from published data in the literature and use the volumetric expansion ratio (VR) and the size parameter (VH) as performance predictors. While been applied to a selected number of working fluids and single stage turbines, the procedure has a general validity being the correlations applicable to any fluid and turbine type. Results show how the turbine efficiency, and in turn the optimum cycle parameters, are influenced by the fluid properties through the turbine VH and VR values, highlighting that the procedure for working fluid selection cannot ignore the real turbine behaviour. So, the optimum design that is obtained is expected to give a behaviour much closer to reality.
Cilt 17 , Sayı 3 , Oca 2014 , Sayfalar 192 - 200
Andrea Lazzaretto, Giovanni Manente
Başlık Anahtar Kelimeler Yazarlar Özet Çevirileri Öz Başlık Çevirileri Anahtar Kelime Çevirileri DOI
The present work reports on the synthesis, crystal structure, fluorescence, electrochemical behavior, and thermogravimetric analysis of a new dinuclear lead(II) complex of 2,3-diphenyl-tetrazole-5-thione. Its structure was characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Each lead atom adopts a distorted octahedral geometry by coordinating to 2 sulfur atoms from 2 2,3-diphenyl-tetrazole-5-thione ligands and 4 oxygen atoms from 3 nitrates. The fluorescence spectrum shows that the title complex has 2 fluorescence emission peaks, at 412 nm and 433 nm. Cyclic voltammetry studies show that the title complex has only one reduction peak, at 0.309 V. The thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the title complex shows a thermal stability below 211 °C; it may decompose instantly above that temperature.
Cilt 34 , Sayı 4 , Oca 2010 , Sayfalar 571 - 579
Rui Rui ZHUANG, Fang Fang JIAN, Ke Fei WANG
Özet Çevirileri Öz