Yıl 2018, Cilt 16, Sayı 4, Sayfalar 82 - 95 2018-12-26

THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE

Özcan Saygın [1] , Halil İbrahim Ceylan [2] , Gönül Babayiğit İrez [3]

48 72

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gender and living place on the number of falls, the risk of falling, the fear of falling, and balance of older people. A total of 148 volunter elderly individuals (59 women and 89 men living in a nursing home and home) participated in this study. According to the 2X2 ANOVA analysis results; gender showed a statistically significant effect on the number of falls (df = (1, 140), F = 5,777, p = .018), fear of falling (df= (1, 140), F=4,609, p=.034), risk of falling (df= (1, 140), F=5,999, p=.016), functional reach test scores (df= (1, 140), F=10,866, p=.001). Older women were more likely to fall than older men, had a higher risk of falling, fear of falling, and a poorer balance. Living place was showed statistically significant effect on fear of falling (df= (1, 140), F=36,854, p=.000), risk of falling (1, 140), F=5,750, p=.018). While elderly people living in the house had more fear of falling than the elderly living in the nursing home, the older people living in the nursing home had a higher risk of falling than those living at home. Gender*living place interaction had a significant effect on fear of falling (df= (1,140), F=12,056, p=.001). It was observed that both older men and women living at home had more fear of falling than older men and women living at nursing homes. According to Independent Sample t test; Functional reach test scores (balance skills) were found to be higher in the elderly who had a low fall risk. In conlusion; to prevent falls and to take precautions, the risk of falls, fear of falling and balance skills of the elderly should be monitored on a regular basis.


Aging, Fall-Risk, Fear of Falling, Balance, Gender
  • Abyad A, Hammami SO (2017): Fear of falling in the elderly an emerging syndrome. Middle East Journal of Age and Ageing, 14(3), 16-25.
  • Agudelo-Botero M, Giraldo-Rodriguez L, Murillo-Gonzalez JC, et al. (2018): Factors associated with occasional and recurrent falls in Mexican community-dwelling older people. PLoS One, 13(2), 1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0192926
  • Aibar-Almazan A, Martinez-Amat A, Cruz-Diaz D et al. (2018): Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in Spanish community-dwelling middle-aged and older women: Association with balance confidence, fear of falling and fall risk. Maturitas, 107, 26-32.
  • Atay E, Akdeniz M (2011): Yaslılarda dusme, dusme korkusu ve bedensel etkinlik. GeroFam, 2(1), 11-28.
  • Barban F, Annicchiarico R, Melideo M, et al. (2017): Reducing fall risk with combined motor and cognitive training in elderly fallers. Brain Sciences, 7(2), 1-19. Doi:10.3390/brainsci7020019
  • Bohannon RW, Wolfson LI, White WB (2017): Functional reach of older adults: normative reference values based on new and published data. Physiotherapy, 103(4), 387-391.
  • Chang VC, Do MT (2015): Risk factors for falls among seniors: implications of gender. American Journal of Epidemiology, 181(7), 521-531.
  • Costa ME, Pepersack T, Godin I, et al. (2012): Fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older people. results of a cross-sectional study conducted in a Belgian town. Arch Public Health, 70(1), 1-8.
  • Curcio CL, Gomez F, Reyes-Ortiz CA (2009): Activity restriction related to fear of falling among older people in the Colombian Andes mountains: are functional or psychosocial risk factors more important? Journal of Aging and Health, 21(3), 460-479.
  • Dhargave P, Sendhilkumar R (2016): Prevalence of risk factors for falls among elderly people living in long-term care homes. Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, 7(3), 99-103.
  • Downton JH (1993): Falls in the elderly. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Duncan PW, Studenski S, Chandler J, et al. (1992): Functional reach: predictive validity in a sample of elderly male veterans. Journal of Gerontology, 47(3), 93-98.
  • Duncan PW, Weiner DK, Chandler, et al. (1990): Functional reach: a new clinical measure of balance. Journal of gerontology, 45(6), 192-197.
  • Duray M, Genc A (2017): The relationship between physical fitness and falling risk and fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly people with different physical activity levels. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 47(2), 455-462.
  • Family Structure Study (2016): Turkey Statistical Institute. Retrived from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24644.
  • Gadelha AB, Neri SGR, Nobrega OT, et al. (2018): Muscle quality is associated with dynamic balance, fear of falling, and falls in older women. Experimental Gerontology. 104, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.01.003
  • Gazibara T, Kurtagic I, Kisic‐Tepavcevic D, et al. (2017): Falls, risk factors and fear of falling among persons older than 65 years of age. Psychogeriatrics, 17(4), 215-223.
  • Gunay M, Tamer K, Cicioglu I (2013): Spor fizyolojisi ve performans olcumu (3 baski). Ankara: Gazi kitapevi.
  • Hadjistavropoulos T, Delbaere K, Fitzgerald TD (2011): Reconceptualizing the role of fear of falling and balance confidence in fall risk. Journal of Aging and Health, 23(1), 3-23.
  • Hageman PA, Leibowitz JM, Blanke D (1995): Age and gender effects on postural control measures. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 76(10), 961-965.
  • Harding S, Gardner A (2009): Fear of falling (Scholarly paper). Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(1), 94-100
  • Hoang OTT, Jullamate P, Piphatvanitcha N, et al. (2017): Factors related to fear of falling among community‐dwelling older adults. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(1-2), 68-76.
  • Horton K (2007): Gender and the risk of falling: a sociological approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(1), 69-76.
  • Howcroft J, Lemaire ED, Kofman J, et al. (2017): Elderly fall risk prediction using static posturography. PLoS One, 12(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172398
  • Irez GB (2014): Identifying Falls efficacy and number of falls in older adults of Turkish population. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport, 2(3), 89-94.
  • Jeon M, Gu MO, Yim J (2017): Comparison of walking, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling between repeated fall group, one-time fall group, and nonfall group of the elderly receiving home care service. Asian Nursing Research., 11(4), 290-296
  • Jiang XY, Chen Y, Yang ML, et al. (2016): Predictors of falls efficacy scale responses among nursing home residents in China. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 3(1), 24-28.
  • Jung D (2008): Fear of falling in older adults: Comprehensive review. Asian Nursing Research, 2(4), 214-222.
  • Kamide N, Takahashi-Narita K, Kawamura A, et al. (2012): Determination of the reference value and systematic bias of the functional reach test in Japanese elderly people by meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, 3(4), 122-126.
  • Katz-Leurer M, Fisher I, Neeb M, et al. (2009): Reliability and validity of the modified functional reach test at the sub-acute stage post-stroke. Disabil Rehabil., 31(3), 243-248.
  • Karatas GK, Maral I (2001): Ankara-Golbasi ilcesinde geriatrik populasyonda 6 aylik donemde dusme sikligi ve dusme icin risk faktorleri. Turkish Journal of Geriatrics, 4(4), 152-158.
  • Kirkwood RN (2018): Increased physical activity in older adults is associated with decreased fear of falling. Evidence-based nursing, 21(2), 52-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/eb-2018-102868.
  • Koyuncu G, Tuna F, Yavuz S, et al. (2017): The last station before fracture: Assessment of falling and loss of balance in elderly. Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63(1), 14-22.
  • Kumar A, Carpenter H, Morris R, et al. (2014): Which factors are associated with fear of falling in community-dwelling older people? Age and Ageing, 43(1), 76-84.
  • Moreira MN, Bilton TL, Dias RC, et al. (2016): What are the main physical functioning factors associated with falls among older people with different perceived fall risk? Physiotherapy Research International, 22(3). Doi: 10.1002/pri.1664
  • Oh E, Hong GRS, Lee S, et al. (2017): Fear of falling and its predictors among community-living older adults in Korea. Aging & Mental Health, 21(4), 369-378.
  • Paul S (2018): Falls: prevention and management. In Geriatric Medicine (pp. 109-119). Singapore: Springer.
  • Prata MG, Scheicher ME (2017): Relationship between fear of falling and quality of life in older women fallers fear of falling and quality of life in older. MOJ Gerontology & Geriat. 1(5), 128-131. Doi:10.15406/mojgg.2017.01.00027
  • Rosendahl E, Lundin-Olsson L, Kallin K, et al. (2003): Prediction of falls among older people in residential care facilities by the Downton index. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 15(2), 142-147.
  • Rubenstein LZ (2006): Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and Ageing, 35(2), 37-41.
  • Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR (2002): The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 18(2), 141-158.
  • Saglik Bakanligi Temel Saglik Hizmetleri Genel Mudurlugu (2011): Yasli Sagliği Modulleri. Ankara: Anil Matbaacilik
  • Sampaio RAC, Sampaio PYS, Yamada M, et al. (2013): Factors associated with falls in active older adults in Japan and Brazil. Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, 4(3), 89-92.
  • Schultz AB, Ashton-Miller JA, Alexander NB (1997): What leads to age and gender differences in balance maintenance and recovery? Muscle Nerve, 5, 60-64.
  • Smee DJ, Anson JM, Waddington GS, et al. (2012): Association between physical functionality and falls risk in community-living older adults. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 1-6. doi:10.1155/2012/864516
  • Sousa N, Mendes R, Silva A, et al. (2017): Combined exercise is more effective than aerobic exercise in the improvement of fall risk factors: a randomized controlled trial in community-dwelling older men. Clinical Rehabilitation, 31(4), 478-486.
  • Soyuer F, Cankurtaran F, Akin S, et al. (2015): Fear of falling in elderly people living in rest home and related factors. Gaziantep Med. J., 21(3), 172-177
  • Suzuki M, Shimamoto Y, Kawamura I, et al. (1997): Does gender make a difference the risk of falls? A Japanese Study. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 23(1), 41-48.
  • Svantesson U, Jones J, Wolbert K, et al. (2015): Impact of physical activity on the self-perceived quality of life in non-frail older adults. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 7(8), 585.
  • Thiamwong L, Suwanno J (2017): Fear of falling and related factors in a community-based study of people 60 years and older in Thailand. International Journal of Gerontology, 11(2), 80-84.
  • Tinetti ME, Richman D, Powell L (1990): Falls efficacy as a measure of fear of falling. Journal of Gerontology, 45(6), 239-243.
  • Tomita Y, Arima K, Tsujimoto R, et al. (2018): Prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults. Medicine, 97(4). Doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009721
  • Toosizadeh N, Mohler J, Marlinski V (2018): Low intensity vibration of ankle muscles improves balance in elderly persons at high risk of falling. PLoS One, 13(3). https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0194720
  • Tran TV, Phan PT (2018): Serious psychological distress, sex, and falls among the elderly. Journal of Women & Aging, 30(1), 75-84.
  • Tuunainen E, Rasku J, Jantti P, et al. (2014): Risk factors of falls in community dwelling active elderly. Auris Nasus Larynx, 41(1), 10-16.
  • Ulus Y, Durmus D, Akyol Y (2012): Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) in community-dwelling older persons. Arch Gerontol Geriatr., 54, 429–433.
  • Vereeck L, Wuyts F, Truijen S et al. (2008). Clinical assessment of balance: normative data, and gender and age effects. International journal of Audiology, 47(2), 67-75.
  • White AM, Tooth LR, Peeters GG (2018): Fall risk factors in mid-age women: the australian longitudinal study on women’s health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 54(1), 51-63.
  • Yamagiwa K, Iijima S, Furuya T, et al. (2011): Incidence of falls and fear of falling in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Modern Rheumatology, 21(1), 51-56.
  • Yardley L, Beyer N, Hauer K, et al. (2005): Development and initial validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Age Ageing, 34, 614–619.
  • Young WR, Williams AM (2015): How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: Applying psychological theory to practical observations. Gait & Posture, 41(1), 7-12.
  • Zhou H, Peng K, Tiedemann A, et al. (2018): Risk factors for falls among older community dwellers in Shenzhen, China. Injury Prevention. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042597
Birincil Dil en
Konular
Dergi Bölümü Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Özcan Saygın
Kurum: Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Halil İbrahim Ceylan (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi

Yazar: Gönül Babayiğit İrez
Kurum: Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { spormetre466278, journal = {SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {1304-284X}, address = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {16}, pages = {82 - 95}, doi = {}, title = {THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE}, key = {cite}, author = {Saygın, Özcan and Ceylan, Halil İbrahim and İrez, Gönül Babayiğit} }
APA Saygın, Ö , Ceylan, H , İrez, G . (2018). THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 16 (4), 82-95. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/spormetre/issue/40788/466278
MLA Saygın, Ö , Ceylan, H , İrez, G . "THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE". SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 16 (2018): 82-95 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/spormetre/issue/40788/466278>
Chicago Saygın, Ö , Ceylan, H , İrez, G . "THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE". SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 16 (2018): 82-95
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE AU - Özcan Saygın , Halil İbrahim Ceylan , Gönül Babayiğit İrez Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 82 EP - 95 VL - 16 IS - 4 SN - 1304-284X- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE %A Özcan Saygın , Halil İbrahim Ceylan , Gönül Babayiğit İrez %T THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE %D 2018 %J SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi %P 1304-284X- %V 16 %N 4 %R %U
ISNAD Saygın, Özcan , Ceylan, Halil İbrahim , İrez, Gönül Babayiğit . "THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND LIVING PLACE ON THE NUMBER OF FALLS, THE RISK OF FALLING, THE FEAR OF FALLING AND BALANCE OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE". SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 16 / 4 (Aralık 2018): 82-95.