Yıl 2014, Cilt 4, Sayı 2, Sayfalar 72 - 84 2014-07-22

BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA

Melis OKTUĞ ZENGİN [1]

196 264

According to the World Health Organization data, proportion of elderly individuals to total population is going to exceed that of children and youth in about 50 years. In the aging population, proportion of females is higher than the proportion of males. Researches show that women are to face numerous problems resulting from discriminatory practices based on age besides gender pattern in social and economic life. In this study, the discriminatory practices that the aging female population was exposed to in professional life were addressed within the cinema sector. Sample of the research consists of actors and actresses who have received awards in the branches of best actress, best actor, best supporting actress and best supporting actor in the longest-running film festival of Turkey, Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival, since the beginning of the festival. Receiving an award is an indicator of successful performance for cinema actors and actresses. In this context, the role of age and gender in professional careers of cinema actors and actresses was investigated by descriptive statistics method, on the basis of age distribution with respect to the gender of cinema actors and actresses who have received awards in best actress, best actor, best supporting actress and best supporting actor since the beginning of Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival.Results obtained from the study revealed similarities to researches related to actresses in the American Cinema which is a part of the literature. Research findings show that the mean age of award-winning actors is higher than the mean age of award-winning actresses in all the branches under consideration and that women receive awards at younger ages compared to men. In this context, it can be suggested that sexist approaches give rise to double jeopardy for actresses in advanced age and their professional careers are constricted in their old age.
Dünya Sağlık Örgütü'nün verilerine göre, yaklaşık 50 yıl kadar bir süre içinde dünyada yaşlı bireylerin toplam nüfusa oranı çocuk ve gençlerin oranını aşacaktır. Yaşlanan nüfusta kadınların oranı, erkeklerden daha yüksektir. Araştırmalar, kadınların, toplumsal ve ekonomik yaşamda, cinsiyet kalıplarının yanısıra yaş temelli ayrımcı uygulamalardan kaynaklanan birçok sorunla yüzyüze kalacağını göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada, yaşlanan kadın nüfusun iş yaşamında maruz kaldığı ayrımcı uygulamalar, sinema alanında ele alınmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi, Türkiye'nin en uzun soluklu film festivali olan Antalya Altın Portakal Film Festivali'nde başlangıcından bu yana en iyi kadın oyuncu, en iyi erkek oyuncu, en iyi yardımcı kadın oyunucu ve en iyi yardımcı erkek oyuncu dallarında ödül alan aktör ve aktrislerden oluşmaktadır. Sinema oyuncuları için ödül almak, başarılı performansın bir göstergesidir. Bu bağlamda, sinema oyuncularının mesleki kariyerlerinde, yaş ve cinsiyetin rolü, Antalya Altın Portakal Film Festivali'nde başlangıcından bu yana en iyi kadın oyuncu, en iyi erkek oyuncu, en iyi yardımcı kadın oyunucu ve en iyi yardımcı erkek oyuncu ödülünü alan sinema oyuncularının cinsiyete göre yaş dağılımlarından yola çıkarak betimleyici istatistik yöntemiyle araştırılmıştır. Çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, literatürde yer alan, Amerikan Sineması'nda kadın oyuncularla ilgili araştırmalarla benzerlik göstermektedir. Araştırmanın bulguları, ödül alan erkek oyuncuların yaş ortalamasının kadın oyuncuların yaş ortalamasından değerlendirmeye alınan tüm dallarda daha yüksek olduğunu ve kadınların erkeklere oranla daha genç yaşlarda ödül aldıklarını göstermektedir. Bu bağlamda, cinsiyetçi yaklaşımların ileri yaşlardaki kadın oyuncular için çifte rizikoya (double jeopardy) yol açtığı, mesleki kariyerlerinin ileri yaşlarda kısıtlandığı söylenebilmektedir.
  • Almerico, G.M. & Thompson, F.H. (1989). The Portrayal of Elderly in US Print Media. Reading, 23 (2), 98-104.
  • Baybora, D. (2010). Çalışma Yaşamında Yaş Ayrımcılığı ve Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde Yaş Ayrımcılığı Düzenlemesi Üzerine. Çalışma ve Toplum, 1, 33-58.
  • Chappell, N. & Havens, B. (1980). Old and Female: Testing Double Jeopardy Hypothesis. Sociological Quaterly, 21, 157-171.
  • Cohen, H.L. (2002). Developing Media Literacy Skills to Challenge Television’s Portrayal of Older Women. Educational Gerontology, 28, 599-620
  • Bazzini, D.G., McIntosh, W.D., Simith S.M., Cook, S. & Harris, C. (1997). The Aging Woman in Popular Film: Underrepresented, Unattractive, Unfriendly and Unintelligent. Sex Roles: A Jounal of Research, 36 (7-8), 531-543.
  • Cuddy A.J & Fiske, S.T. (2004). Doddering But Dear: Process, Content and Function. In (Todd Nelson ed.), Stereotyping, Prejudice against Older People (3-26). USA: MIT Press
  • Çelenk, S. (2010). Ayrımcılık ve Medya. In (Bülent Çaplı, Hakan Tuncel eds.) Televizyon Haberciliğinde Etik (211-228). Ankara: İlef
  • De Pater, I, E., Judge T, A. & Scott, B.A. (2014). Age, Gender and Compensation: A Study of Hollywood Movie Stars. Journal of Management Inquiry. doi: 1177/1056492613519861, 1-14.
  • Dupâquier, J. (2006). Vieillesemnt de la Population dans le Monde. Rayonnement de la CNRS, bulletin no: 42. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from http://www.rayonnementducnrs.com/bulletin/b2/vieillissement.pdf.
  • Geray, H. (2006). Toplumsal Araştırmalarda Nicel ve Nitel Yöntemlere Giriş. Ankara: Siyasal.
  • Gerbner, G. (1994). Aging as a social role: The lessons of television. Retrieved  December 14, 2013 from  http://www.asc.upenn.edu/gerbner/Asset.aspx?assetID=2066.
  • Gül, İ.I & Karan, U. (2011). Ayrımcılık Yasağı Kavram, Hukuk, İzleme ve Belgeleme. İstanbul:İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://insanhaklarimerkezi.bilgi.edu.tr/docs/Ayrimcilik_Yasagi_Kavram_Hukuk_Izle me_ve_Belgeleme.pdf.
  • HelpAge (2011). On the Edge. Retrieved May 2, 2014 from www.helpage.org/download/4e8c29f3cf853/.
  • Karasar, N. (2007). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi. Ankara: Nobel
  • Macnicol, J. (2006). Age discrimination: An Historical and Comtemporary Analysis. UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Harwood, J. (2000). Sharp! Lurking Incoherence in a Television Portrayal of an Older Adult. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 19 (1), 110-140.
  • HelpAge (2011). Discrimination in Old Age: Multiple, Cumulative and on the Increase. Retrieved
  • April 20, 2014 from http://social.un.org/ageing-workinggroup/documents/HelpAge%20briefing%20discrimination%20in%20old%20age%20 Aug%2011.pdf.
  • Lagacé, M. (Ed). (2010). Agisme Comprendre et Changer le Regard Social sur le Vieillissement. Québec: Presse de l’Université Laval.
  • Lauzen, M. (2013). It's a Man's (celluloid) World: On-Screen Representations of Female characters in Top 100 Films on 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2014 from http://womenintvfilm.sdsu.edu/files/2013_It's_a_Man's_World_Report.pdf.
  • Lincoln, A., E. & Allen, M. P. (2004). Double Jeopardy in Hollywood: Age and Gender in the Careers of Film Actors, 1926-1999. Sociological Forum, 19 (4), 611-631.
  • Markson E.W & Taylor, C.A. (1993). Real versus Reel World. Women & Therapy, 14 (1-2), 157-1
  • Markson E.W & Taylor, C.A. (2000). The Mirror Has Two Faces. Aging and Society, 20, 137-1
  • Nelson, T.D. (2011). Ageism. The Strange Case of Prejudice against Older You. In R.L. Wiener & S.L. Willborn (eds), Disability and aging discirimination (37-47). New York: Springer.
  • Onur, B. (2011). Gelişim Psikolojisi. Ankara: İmge.
  • Pellisier, J. (2009). Agisme et Stéréotypes. Vie et Vieillissement, 7 (2), 4-8.
  • Peterson, R.T. (1992). The Depiction of Senior Citizens in Magazine Advertisements: A Content
  • Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 701-706. Pilote, C. (2010). Avis sur l'âgisme envers les aînés: Etat de la situation. Québec: Conseil des aînés du Québec. Retrieved January 24, 2014 https://www.uclouvain.be/cps/ucl/doc/aisblgenerations/documents/DocPart_Etud_AgismeQuebec.pdf.
  • Rahtz, D.R, Sirgy, M.J. & Meadow, H.L. (1997). The Elderly Audience: Correlates of Television Orientation. Journal of Advertising, 18 (3), 9-20.
  • Robinson, T. & Anderson, C. (2006). Older Characters in Children’s Animated Programs: A Content Analysis of Their Portrayal. The Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50 (2), 287-304.
  • Robinson, T., Callister, M., Magoffin, D. & Moore, J. (2007). The Portrayal of Older Characters in Disney Animated Films. Journal of Aging, 21 (3), 203-213.
  • Rochman, J. & Tremblay, D. G. (2010). Le Soutient à la Participation des Aînés et le Programme "Ville Amie des Aînés" (Note de Recherche no: 2010-5). Montreal: Univeristé de Québec. Retrieved January 24, 2014 from http://benhur.teluq.uquebec.ca/SPIP/aruc/IMG/pdf_ARUC-NR10-05-2.pdf.
  • Roy, A. Harwood, J. (1997). Underrepresented, Positively Portrayed: Older Adults in Television
  • Commercials. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 39-56. Sedick, S. & Ross, V. (2011). Older People’s Portrayal in the Print Media: Implications for Intergenerational Relations. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 21 (4), 549-554.
  • Signorielli, N. (2004). Aging on Television: Messages Relating to Gender, Race and Occupation in Prime Time. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48 (2), 279-30
  • Smeaton, D. & Vegeris, S. (2009). Older People Inside and Outside the Labour Market (Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report no: 22). Retrieved February 22, 2013 from http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/documents/research/22._older _people_inside_and_outside_the_labour_market_a_review.pdf.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2013). İstatistiklerle Kadın 2012. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=13458.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2014). İstatistiklerle Yaşlılar 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=16057.
  • Samorodov, A. (1999). Ageing Labour Markets for oldres workers (Empoyment and training paper). Geneva: ILO.
  • Sontag, S. (1972). The Double Standard of Aging. Saturday Review of the Society, 23, 29-38.
  • Saucier, M. G. (2004). Midlife and Beyond: Issues for aging Women. Journal of Conseling & Development, 82, 420-425.
  • United Nations. (2007). World Economic and social survey 2007 development in an ageing world. New York: Author. Retrieved June 20, 2013 from http://www.un.org/esa/analysis/wess/wess2007files/wess2007.pdf.
  • World Healt Organization. (1972). Psychogeriatrics (Technical Report No: 507). France: Author. Retrieved June 20, 2013 from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_507.pdf.
  • Union Eurpéenne. (2012). Contribution de l'UE au Vieillissement Actif et à la Solidarité Intergénérationnelle. Belgium: Auteur.
  • United Nations. (1983). Vienna international plan of action on ageing. New York: Author. Retrieved August 11, 2013 from http://www.un.org/es/globalissues/ageing/docs/vipaa.pdf.
  • United Nations Population Fund & HelpAge International. (2012). Ageing in the twenty-first century: A celebration and a challenge. USA: Author.Retrieved June 14, 2013 from http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2012/ AgeingReport_full.pdf.
  • World Healt Organization. (2002). Active Aging a Policy Framework. Spain: Author.
  • World Healt Organization. (2007). Global age-friendly cities: A guide. France: Author. Retrieved
  • July 22, 2013 from http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/active_ageing/en/.
  • World Healt Organization. (2012). Ageing and health. Retrieved July 23, 2013 from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2012/WHO_DCO_WHD_2012.1_eng.pdf.
  • Zahidi, S. (2012). Women and Ageing. In Beard, J.R, Biggs, S., Bloom, D.E., Fried, L.P., Hogan, P., Kalache, A. & Olshansky, S.J. (Eds). Global Population ageing: Peril or promise?. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Retrieved June 14, 2013 http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GAC_GlobalPopulationAgeing_Report_2012. pdf Zhang, Y.B., Harwood, J., Williams, A., Ylanne-McEven, V., Wadleigh, P.M & Thimm, C. (2006). The Portrayal of Older Adults in Advertising a Cross-national Review. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 25 (2), 264-2 http://www.beyazperde.com/dosyalar/sinema/dosya-50773/. http://www.altinportakal.org.tr/festival/festival-tarihcesi/.
Birincil Dil tr
Konular
Dergi Bölümü Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Melis OKTUĞ ZENGİN

Bibtex @ { tojdac156829, journal = {The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication}, issn = {2146-5193}, eissn = {2146-5193}, address = {Deniz Yengin}, year = {2014}, volume = {4}, pages = {72 - 84}, doi = {}, title = {BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA}, key = {cite}, author = {ZENGİN, Melis OKTUĞ} }
APA ZENGİN, M . (2014). BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA. The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication, 4 (2), 72-84. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/tojdac/issue/13017/156829
MLA ZENGİN, M . "BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA". The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication 4 (2014): 72-84 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/tojdac/issue/13017/156829>
Chicago ZENGİN, M . "BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA". The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication 4 (2014): 72-84
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA AU - Melis OKTUĞ ZENGİN Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - DO - T2 - The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 72 EP - 84 VL - 4 IS - 2 SN - 2146-5193-2146-5193 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA %A Melis OKTUĞ ZENGİN %T BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA %D 2014 %J The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication %P 2146-5193-2146-5193 %V 4 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD ZENGİN, Melis OKTUĞ . "BEING OLD AND BEING A WOMAN: A RESEARCH ON THE AGE AND GENDER RELATIONSHIP IN THE AWARD-WINNING ACTORS AND ACTRESSES OF THE TURKISH CINEMA". The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication 4 / 2 (Temmuz 2014): 72-84.