Cilt 18, Sayı 4, Sayfalar 35 - 51 2017-10-01

Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

William J. FRASER [1]

55 0

This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS), and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI). Furthermore, science educators’ own PCK, and the limitations of a predominantly paper-based distance education (DE) model of delivery are challenges that they have to face when introducing PCK and authentic inquiry-based learning experiences. It deprives them and their students from optimal engagement in a science-oriented community of practice, and leaves little opportunity to establish flourishing communities of inquiry. This study carried out a contextual analysis of the tutorial material to assess the PCK that the student teachers had been exposed to. This comprised the ideas of a community of inquiry, a community of science, the conceptualization of PCK, scientific inquiry, and the 5E Instructional Model of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. The analysis confirmed that the lecturers had a good understanding of NOS, NOSI and science process skills, but found it difficult to design interventions to optimize the PCK development of students through communities of inquiry. Paper-based tutorials are ideal to share theory, policies and practices, but fail to monitor the engagement of learners in communities of inquiry. The article concludes with a number of suggestions to address the apparent lack of impact power of the paper-based mode of delivery, specifically in relation to inquiry-based teaching and learning (IBTL).

Pedagogical content knowledge,nature of science,nature of scientific inquiry,community of inquiry,inquiry-based teaching and learning
  • Adewara, A. J., & Lawal, O. (2015). New Technologies and Science Teacher Education within the context of Distance Learning: A Case Study for the University of Lagos. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16(3), 48-60. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Project 2061. New York: Oxford University Press. Bell, R. L., Smetana, L., & Binns, I. (2005). Simplifying Inquiry Instruction. Assessing the inquiry levels of classroom activities. The Science Teacher, 30-33. National Science Teachers Association. Berry, A., Friedrichsen, P., & Loughran, J. (Eds.). (2015). Re-examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Science Education. New York: Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group. 48 Bertram, A. (2014). ‘CoRes and PaP-eRs as a strategy for helping beginning primary teachers develop their pedagogical content knowledge. Educacion Química, 25(3), 292-303. Borba, M. C., Askar, P., Engelbrecht, J., Gadanidis, G., Llinares, S., &. Aguilar, M. S. (2016). ZDM Mathematics Education, 48(5), 598-610. Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27-40. Bybee, R. W., Taylor, J. A., Gardner, A., Van Scotter, P., Powell, J. C., Westbrook, A., & Landes, N. (2006). The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Origins and Effectiveness. A Report Prepared for the Office of Science Education National Institutes of Health. Colorado Springs: BSCS. Byrne, M. (2001). Hermeneutics as a methodology for textual analysis. AORN Journal, 73(5), 968-970. Carin, A. A., & Sund, R. B. (1985). Teaching Modern Science. Fourth Edition. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company. Chambers, R. (1994a). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Challenges, potentials and paradigm. World Development, 22(10), 1437-1454. Chambers, R. (1994b). The origins and practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. World Development, 22(7), 953-969. Czerniewicz, L; Deacon, A; Fife, M; Small, J., & Walji, S. (2015). CILT Position Paper: MOOCs. CILT, University of Cape Town. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Edition. London: Routledge Falmer. Collette, A.T., & Chiappetta, E. L. (1986). Science Instruction in the Middle and Secondary Schools. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company. Department of Basic Education. (2011). National Curriculum Statement (NCS). Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). Life Sciences. Grades 10-12. Republic of South Africa. Elo, S., Kaariainen, M., Kanste, O., Polkki, T., Utriainen, K. & Kyngas, H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 1-10. Engestrom. Y. (2000). Activity theory as a framework for analyzing and redesigning work. Ergonomics, 43(7), 960-974. Ferreira, R. (2008), 'Using intervention research to facilitate community-based coping with HIV&AIDS', in L. Ebersohn (ed.) From microscope to kaleidoscope: Reconsidering psychosocial and educational aspects related to children in the HIV&AIDS pandemic, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam. Franzak, J. K. (2002). Developing a Teacher Identity: The Impact of Critical Friends Practice on the Student Teacher. English Education 34(4), 258-280. Fraser, W. Ferreira, R., Kazeni, M., Beukes, L.D., & Eberlein, E. (2015). Student teachers as researchers: Developing teacher identities in a community of practice. Paper presented at the annual Edulearn15 Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 6-8 Julie 2015. Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, Cognitive, and Teaching Presence Issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61-72. Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. Internet and Higher Education, 10, 157-172. Gaigher, E., Lederman, N., & Lederman, J. (2014). Knowledge about Inquiry: A study in SA high schools. International Journal of Science Education, 36(18):3125-3147. Haughey, M., Evans, T., & Murphy, D. (Eds.). (2008). International Handbook of Distance Education. Access from Deakin Research Online on 19 November 2016. 49 Heydenrych, J. F., & Prinsloo, P. (2010). Revisiting the five generations of distance education: Quo vadis? Progressio, 32(1), 5-26. Hodson, D. (2009). Teaching and Learning about Science. Language, Theories, Methods, History, Traditions and Values. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Holmberg, B. (1983). Guided didactic conversation in distance education. In D. Sewart, D. Keegan, & B. Holmberg (Eds.), Distance Education: International Perspectives (p. 114-122). New York: St. Martin's Press. Hulsmann, T., & Shabalala, L. (2016). Workload and interaction: Unisa’s signature courses – a design template for transition to online DE? Distance Education, 37(2), 224-236. Hume, A., & Berry, A. (2010). Constructing CoRes-a Strategy for Building PCK in Pre-service Science Teacher Education. Research in Science Education, 41(3), 341-355. Korthagen, F. A. J. (2001). Linking practice and theory: the pedagogy of realistic Teacher Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Lasley II, T. J., Matczynski, T. J., & Rowley, J. B. (2002). Instructional Models. Strategies for Teaching in a Diverse Society. Second Edition. Singapore: Wadsworth Group. Lederman, J. S. (s.a). Teaching Scientific Inquiry: Exploration, Directed, Guided, and Open-ended Levels. Best Practices in Science Education. Retrieved from pdf on 22 November 2016. Lederman, N. G. (1992). Students’ and Teachers’ Conceptions of the Nature of Science: A review of the Research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(4), 331-359. Lederman, J. S., Lederman, N., Bartos, S. A., Bartels, S. l., Meyer, A. A., & Schwartz, R. S. (2014). Meaningful Assessment of learners' Understandings About Scientific Inquiry - The Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(1), 65-83. Leijen, A., Valtna, K., Leijen, D. A. J., & Pedaste, M. (2012). How to determine the quality of students’ reflections? Studies in Higher Education 37(2), 203-217. Loughran, J., Berry, A., & Mulhall, P. (2012). Understanding and Developing Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge. 2nd Edition. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Mansvelder-longayroux, D. D. Beijaard, D., & Verloop, N. (2007). The Portfolio as a Tool for stimulating Reflection by Student Teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 23(1), 47-62. Maree, K. (Ed.). (2016). First Steps in Research. Second Edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers. Marshall, J. C., Horton, B., & Smart, J. (2009). 4E × 2 Instructional Model: Uniting Three Learning Constructs to Improve Praxis in Science and Mathematics Classrooms. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20(6), 501–516. McCarthy, T. (1978). The Critical Theory of Jurgen Habermas. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Metz, A. J. R. (2007). Why conduct a program evaluation? Five reasons why evaluation can help an out-of-school time programme. Washington: Child Trends. Minner, D. D., Levy, A. J., & Century, J. (2010). Inquiry-based Science Instruction – What Is It and Does It Matter? Results from a Research Synthesis Years 1984 – 2002. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 474-496. National Research Council. (1996). National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Perry, B., & Edwards, M. (2005). Exemplary Online Educators: Creating a Community of Inquiry. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 6(2), 46-54. Poulton, T., Conradi, E., Kavia, S., Round, J., & Hilton, S. (2009). The replacement of ‘paper’ cases by interactive online virtual patients in problem-based learning. Medical Teacher, 31(8), 752-758. 50 Ramnarain, U. (Ed.). (2010). Teaching Scientific Investigation. Northlands: Macmillan South Africa, (Pty), Ltd. Rockwell, G. (2003). What is text analysis, really? Literary and Linguistic Computing, 18(2), 209-219. Schwab, J. J. (1978). Science, curriculum and liberal education. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Schwartz, R. S., Lederman, N. G., & Crawford, B. A. (2004). Developing views about Nature of Science in an authentic context: An explicit approach to bridging the gap between Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry. Science Education, 88(4), 610-645. Schwartz, R. S., Lederman, N. G., & Lederman, J. S. (2008). An Instrument to Assess views of Scientific Inquiry: The VOS/Instrument. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, March 30 - April 2, 2008. Baltimore, MD. Paper retrieved from rschwart/docs/V0Sinarst08.pdf Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-21. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growing in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. Siribunnam, R., & Tayraukham, S. (2009). Effects of 7-E, KWL and Conventional Instruction on Analytical Thinking, Learner Achievement and Attitudes towards Chemistry Learning. Journal of Social Sciences, 5(4), 279-282. Slavin, R. E. (1990). Research on Cooperative Learning: Consensus and Controversy. Educational Leadership, January 1990, 52-54. Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general Inductive Approach for analysing Qualitative Evaluation Data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 237-246. Tuovinen, J. E., & Sweller, J. (1999). A comparison of cognitive load associated with discovery learning and worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 334-341. Van Putten, S. (2014). Do prospective mathematics teachers teach who they say they are? Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 17(4), 369-392. Van Rooyen, H., & De Beer, J. (2007). Teaching Science in the OBE Classroom. Braamfontein: Macmillan South Africa Publishers (Pty) Ltd. Van Zyl, J. M., Spamer, E. J., & Els, C. J. (2012). Effect of Contact Class Attendance on the Academic Success of Open Distance Learning Students in Advanced Certificate in Education Programmes. Contemporary Educational Technology, 3(3):166-183. Venkat, H., Rollnick, M., Loughran, J., & Askew, M. (Eds.). (2014). Exploring Mathematics and Science Teachers’ Knowledge. Window into teacher thinking. London: Routledge – Taylor & Francis Group. Von Maltzahn, R., & Van der Riet, T. (2006). 'A critical reflection on participatory methods as an alternative mode of enquiry', New Voices in Psychology, 2(1), 108-128. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: learning, Meaning, and Identity. New York: Cambridge University Press. Wellington, J. (Ed.). (1989). Skills and Processes in Science Education. A Critical Analysis. London: Routledge.
Dergi Bölümü Volume: 18 Number: 4

Yazar: William J. FRASER
Ülke: South Africa

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tojde340375, journal = {Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education}, issn = {1302-6488}, address = {Anadolu Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {18}, pages = {35 - 51}, doi = {10.17718/tojde.340375}, title = {Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs}, language = {en}, key = {cite}, author = {FRASER, William J.} }
APA FRASER, W . (2017). Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18 (4), 35-51. DOI: 10.17718/tojde.340375
MLA FRASER, W . "Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 18 (2017): 35-51 <>
Chicago FRASER, W . "Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 18 (2017): 35-51
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs AU - William J. FRASER Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.17718/tojde.340375 DO - 10.17718/tojde.340375 T2 - Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 35 EP - 51 VL - 18 IS - 4 SN - 1302-6488- M3 - doi: 10.17718/tojde.340375 UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs %A William J. FRASER %T Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs %D 2017 %J Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education %P 1302-6488- %V 18 %N 4 %R doi: 10.17718/tojde.340375 %U 10.17718/tojde.340375