Yıl 2019, Cilt 20, Sayı 1, Sayfalar 35 - 52 2019-01-01

Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study

Donald VAN DER MERWE [1]

1 15

Whereas there exists a complex pattern of interrelated factors that act as determinants of the successful implementation of ODL in developing countries, most point at differences in access, use of, or impact of ICT. In addressing an area of research that has not received any attention, this study reports on an investigation into the relationship between ICT use patterns, selected mental health symptoms and the emotional, social and psychological well-being of the historically disadvantaged ODL student in the South African context of disparities. Data collected from 315 students in online survey revealed medium ICT use, higher computer use by working students compared to full-time students, a low prevalence of computer overuse symptoms, medium loss of sleep and a preference for individualized and non-collaborative activities that require minimalistic use of ICT. Differences between the ICT use scores of students who reported symptoms of stress and sleep disturbances and those who did not report symptoms were not significant, while the majority of students were diagnosed as moderately mentally healthy or flourishing. A significant relationship was found between working students’ ICT use scores and reduced performance, as well as between their ICT use scores and their social, emotional and psychological well-being scores. The strengths of the well-being relationships, however, ranged from weak to very weak. No significant relationships were reported for full-time students, nor for both groups between their ICT use scores and total mental health scores. The study concluded that in the context studied, ICT use patterns hold no risk factors for the mental health and well-being of the historically disadvantaged ODL student.

Open distance learning, student well-being, mental health symptoms, historically disadvantaged student, developing countries, ICT use patterns
  • Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. (2001). Research commentary: Technology mediated learning-a call for greater depth and breadth of research. Information Systems Research, 12(1), 1–10. Arinto, P. (2016). Issues and challenges in open and distance e-learning: Perspectives from the Philippines. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 17(2), 162–180. Bantjes, J.R., Kagee, A., McGowan,T., & Steel, H. (2015). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety as predictors of suicidal ideation among South African university students. Journal of American College Health, 64(6), 429–437. Berg, M., Arnetz, B.B., Liden. S., Eneroth. P., & Kallner, A. (1992). Techno-stress. A psychophysiological study of employees with VDU-associated skin complaints. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 34, 698-701. Berkowsky, R. W. (2012). Internet use, social integration, and psychological well-being in older adults. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree Master of Arts. Birmingham, Alabama. Bolland, J. M., Lian, B. E., & Formichella, C. M. (2005). The origins of hopelessness among inner-city African American adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3-4), 293-305. Brown, C., & Czerniewicz, L. (2010). Debunking the ‘digital native’: Beyond digital apartheid, towards digital democracy. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26, 357–369. Chigona, A., & Chigona, W. (2010). An investigation of factors affecting the use of ICT for teaching in the Western Cape schools. ECIS 2010 Proceedings (2010), 61. Retrieved October, 14, 2017 from https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2010/6 Cotten, S.R. (2008). Students’ technology use and the impacts on well-being. In Using Emerging Technologies to Enhance Student Engagement. New Directions for Student Services Issue #124 (eds. R. Junco & D.M. Timm), pp. 55–70. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. de Bruin, G.P., & du Plessis, P. (2015). Bifactor analysis of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF). Psychological Reports, 116(2):438-46. Day, A., Paguet, S., Scott, N., & Hambley, L. (2012). Perceived information and communication technology (ICT) demands on employee outcomes: The moderating effect of organizational ICT support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(4), 473– 491. Day, A., Scott, N., & Kelloway, E.K. (2010). Information and communication technology: Implications for job stress and employee well-being. Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being, 8, 317-350. Diaz, I., Chiaburu, D. S., Zimmerman, R. D., & Boswell, W. R. (2012). Communication technology: Pros and cons of constant connection to work. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 500-508. Elo. A., Leppanen, A., & Jahkola, A. (2010). Validity of a single-item measure of stress symptoms. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 29(6), 441–451. Enez Darcin, A., Noyan, C., Nurmedov, S., Yilmaz, O., & Dilbaz, N. (2015). Smartphone addiction in relation with social anxiety and loneliness among university students in Turkey. European Psychiatry, 30, 505. Faircloth, B. S., & Hamm, J. V. (2005). Sense of belonging among high school students representing 4 ethnic groups. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(4), 293-309. Field, L. K., & Buitendach, J. H. (2011). Happiness, work engagement and organizational commitment of support staff at a tertiary education institution in South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 37(1), 1–10. GHS (2015). General Household Survey 2015. Statistics South Africa. Retrieved September, 01, 2017 from https://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0318/P03182015.pdf Goddard, M.S. (2012). Sleep quality, technostress, and maladaptive use of technology: Predictors of depression among college students. A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Memphis. Govender, P., Mkhabela, S., Hlongwane, S., Jalim, K., & Jetha, C.G. (2015). OT student's experience of stress and coping. South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(3), 34-39. Gupta, N., Garg, S., & Arora, K. (2016). Pattern of mobile phone usage and its effects on psychological health, sleep, and academic performance in students of a medical university. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6(2), 132–139. Heda (2018). Heda: Institutional Information and Analysis Portal, UNISA. Jackson, L. T. B., Rothmann, S., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006). A model of work-related well-being for educators in South Africa. Stress and Health, 22(4), 263–274. Jena, R. K. (2015). Compulsive use of Smartphone and Technostress: A study among Indian students. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 13(1), 353–362. Johansson-Hiden, B., Wastlund, E., & Wallin, S. (2003). Reflecting on ICT and stress: conceptual connections and a suggested application. In Human IT. Karlstad: Karlstad University Studies. Kecklund G., & Åkerstedt, T. (1992). The psychometric properties of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire. Journal of Sleep Research, 1(Suppl 1), q13. Keyes, C. L. M., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 1007–1022. Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Atlanta: Brief description of the mental health continuum short form (MHC-SF). Retrieved July 28, 2017 from http://www.sociology.emory.edu/ckeyes/ Keyes, C.L., Wissing, M., Potgieter, J.P., Temane, M., Kruger, A., & van Rooy, S. (2008). Evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-speaking South Africans. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 15(3), 181-92. Kisanga, D. & Ireson, G. (2015). Barriers and strategies on adoption of e-learning in Tanzanian higher learning institutions: Lessons for adopters. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 11(2), 126-137. Kim, H. H. (2017). The impact of online social networking on adolescent psychological well-being (WB): a population-level analysis of Korean school-aged children. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 22(3), 364–376. Lam L.T., & Peng, Z.W. (2010). Effect of pathological use of the internet on adolescent mental health: a prospective study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(10), 901–906. Letseka, M., Breier M., & Visser, M. (2009). Poverty, race and student achievement in seven higher education institutions. In Letseka, M., Cosser, M., Breier, M., & Visser, M. (Eds.), Student Retention and Graduate Destination: Higher Education and Labour Marked Access and Success (pp. 25-40). HSRC Press Banker, Ganju and Pavlou, 2013. Liebenberg, H., Chetty, Y., & Prinsloo, P. (2012). Student access to and skills in using technology in an open and distance learning context. The International review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(4), 251-268. Lindstrom, K., Elo, A.L., Skogstad, A., Dallner, M., Gamberale, F., Hottinen, V., Knardahl, S., & Orhede E. (2010). User's guide for the QPSNordic. General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers; 2000, 603. Livingstone, S., & Brake, D. (2010). On the rapid rise of social networking sites: New findings and policy implications. Children & Society, 24, 75- 83. Maina, M., & Nzuki, D. (2015). Adoption determinants of e-learning management system in institutions of higher learning in Kenya: A Case of Selected Universities in Nairobi Metropolitan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6(2), 233-248. Merry, S. N., Hetrick, S. E., Cox, G. R., Brudevold-Iversen, T., Bir, J. J., & McDowell, H. (2012). Psychological and educational interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents (Review). Evidence-Based Child Health 7(5), 1409-1685. Naicker, N. K., & van der Merwe, T. M. (2012). Mobile learning in higher education: A study of the technology readiness of students at a South African higher education institution. Paper presented at the 14th Annual Conference on World Wide Web Applications, Durban, 7-9 November 2012. Nawe, J. (1995). Work-related stress among the library and information workforce. Library Review, 44(6), 30-37. Ninaus, K., Diehl, S., Terlutter, R., Chan, K., Huang, A., & Erlandsson, S. (2015). Benefits and stressors - Perceived effects of ICT use on employee health and work stress: An exploratory study from Austria and Hong Kong. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 10. doi: 10.3402/qhw.v10.2883. Nordin, M., Akerstedt, T., & Nordin, S. (2013). Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the Karolinka Sleep questionnaire. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 11, 216-226. NSW (2015). Student wellbeing: A literature review. Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation. NSW Department of Education and Communities. Retrieved December, 08, 2017 from https://learnerwellbeingcentre.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/student_wellbeing_litreview_v6.pdf OECD. (2017). How's Life? 2017: Measuring Well-being, OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/how_life-2017-en. O’Driscoll, M.P., Brough, P., Timms, C., & Sawang, S. (2010). Engagement with information and communication technology and psychological well-being. In P. L. Perrewe and D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Research in occupational stress and well-being. Volume 8: New developments in theoretical and conceptual approaches to stress (pp. 269 –316). Bingley, UK: Emerald. O’Neal Coleman, L., Hale, T. M., Cotten, S. R., Gibson, P., Coleman, N., Hale, T.M., Cotton, S.R., & Gibson, P. (2015). The impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage on psychological wellbeing among urban youth. Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 19(19), 267–291. Oyedemi, T.D. (2012). Digital inequalities and implications for social inequalities: A study of Internet penetration amongst university students in South Africa. Telematics and Informatics, 29, 302-313. Patel, J., Ryoo, S., & Kettinger, W. (2012). Theorizing the dual role of information technology in technostress research. AMCIS 2012, Paper 12. Plowman, L., McPake, J., & Stephen, C. (2010). The technologisation of childhood? Young children and technology in the home. Children & Society, 24, 63-74. Portello, J.K., Rosenfield, M., Bababekova, Y., Estrada, J.M., & Leon, A. (2012). Computer-related visual symptoms in office workers. Ophthalmic and Physiology Optics, 32, 375–382. Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2 media in the lives of 8- to 18-year olds. A Kaiser Family Foundation Study. A National survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved March 12, 2017 from http://www.kff.org/entme- dia/upload/8010.pdf Romano,J., Wallace, T.L., Helmick, I.J., Carey, L.M., & Adkins, A. (2005). Study procrastination, achievement, and academic motivation in web-based and blended distance learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(4), 299-305. Seedat, S., Stein, D.J., Jackson, P.B., Heeringa, S.G., Williams, D.R., & Myer, L. (2009). Life stress and mental disorders in the South African stress and health study. South African Medical Journal, 99, 375–82. Shaw, L. H., & Gant, L. M. (2002). In Defense of the Internet: The Relationship between internet communication and depression, loneliness, self-esteem, and perceived social support. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 5(2), 157–171. Ssekakubo, G., Suleman, H., & Marsden, G. (2011). Issues of adoption: Have e-learning management systems fulfilled their potential in developing countries? Proceedings of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists Conference on Knowledge, Innovation and Leadership in a Diverse, Multidisciplinary Environment, 231-238. Thinyane, H. (2010). Are digital natives a world-wide phenomenon? An investigation into South African first year students’ use and experience with technology. Computers and Education, 55(1), 406–414. Thomee, S., Eklof, M., Gustafsson, E., Nilsson, R., & Hagberg, M. (2007). Prevalence of perceived stress, symptoms of depression and sleep disturbances in relation to information and communication technology (ICT) use among young adults - an explorative prospective study. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(3), 1300–1321. Thomee, S., Harenstam, A., & Hagberg, M. (2012). Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults – a prospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry, 2012, 12:176. Trucano, M. (2005). Quick guide: ICTs in education challenges and research questions. World Bank. Retrieved 21 February 2017 from http://www.infodev.org/articles/quick-guide-icts-education-challenges-and-research-questions Trucano, M. (2015). Research questions about technology use in education in developing countries. World Bank. Retrieved 23 February 2017 from http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/research-questions-about-technology-use-education-developing-countries Unwin, T., Kleessen, B., Hollow, D., Williams, J. B., Oloo, L.M., Alwala, J., Mutimucuio, I., Eduardo, F., & Muianga, X. (2010). Digital learning management systems in Africa: myths and realities. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 5-23. Vacek, K. R., Coyle, L. D., & Vera, E. M. (2010). Stress, self-esteem, hope, optimism, and well-being in urban ethnic minority adolescents. Journal of Multicultural Counselling and Development, 38, 99-111. Young, C., & Campbell, M. (2014). Student wellbeing at a university in post-apartheid South Africa: a comparison with a British university sample using the GP-CORE measure. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 42(4), 359-371. Zwart, J.A., Dyb, G., Hagen, K., Svebak, S., Stovner, L.J., & Holmen, J. (2004). Analgesic overuse among subjects with headache, neck, and low-back pain. Neurology, 62, 1540–1544.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Sosyal
Dergi Bölümü Articles

Orcid: 0000-0002-0710-3366
Yazar: Donald VAN DER MERWE (Sorumlu Yazar)

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tojde522373, journal = {Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education}, issn = {1302-6488}, address = {Anadolu Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {20}, pages = {35 - 52}, doi = {10.17718/tojde.522373}, title = {Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study}, key = {cite}, author = {VAN DER MERWE, Donald} }
APA VAN DER MERWE, D . (2019). Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 20 (1), 35-52. DOI: 10.17718/tojde.522373
MLA VAN DER MERWE, D . "Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 20 (2019): 35-52 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/tojde/issue/43090/522373>
Chicago VAN DER MERWE, D . "Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 20 (2019): 35-52
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study AU - Donald VAN DER MERWE Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.17718/tojde.522373 DO - 10.17718/tojde.522373 T2 - Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 35 EP - 52 VL - 20 IS - 1 SN - 1302-6488- M3 - doi: 10.17718/tojde.522373 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.17718/tojde.522373 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study %A Donald VAN DER MERWE %T Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study %D 2019 %J Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education %P 1302-6488- %V 20 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17718/tojde.522373 %U 10.17718/tojde.522373
ISNAD VAN DER MERWE, Donald . "Exploring the Relationship Between ICT Use, Mental Health Symptoms and Well-Being of the Historically Disadvantaged Open Distance Learning Student: A Case Study". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 20 / 1 (Ocak 2019): 35-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.17718/tojde.522373