Yıl 2018, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, Sayfalar 632 - 661 2018-10-20

HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU
HAYDEN WHITE and the QUESTION of HISTORICAL NARRATIVE

Selim TEZCAN [1]

25 275

Bu makale, Hayden White’ın tarih anlatısı konusunda Metahistory kitabı ve yarım yüzyılı aşan kariyeri boyunca yayınladığı makalelerde dile getirdiği düşünce ve gözlemleri ele almaktadır. White, “dilsel dönüş”ten hareketle anlatının salt tarihçinin bulgularını aktarmakta kullandığı bir araç olmakla kalmayıp beraberinde kendi içeriğini de getirdiğini ortaya koyan, böylece onu sorunsallaştıran ilk tarihçi olmuştur. Mevcut çalışma, onun tarih anlatısı ve sorunları hakkındaki irdelemelerini dört bölümde incelemektedir. İlk bölümde, White’ın başı sonu bellisiz bir takvimden vakayinameye ve oradan olay örgüsüne sahip tam bir tarih anlatısına uzanan değişik tarihyazımı türlerini nasıl karşılaştırdığını inceleyeceğiz. İkinci bölümde, White’ın tarih anlatısının olay örgüsünün ötesine geçen kurgusal yanlarına, yani temelindeki kavramsal mecazi çerçeveye, argüman kipine ve bunların ideolojik imalarına nasıl ışık tuttuğunu göreceğiz. Bunu izleyen bölümde, kurgunun tarih anlatısının harcındaki bu önemli yerini kabul etmenin; tarihin gerçeklikle ilişkisi, sağladığı bilgilerin doğası ve kurgu edebiyatla benzerlik ve farkları gibi önemli konular bakımından doğurduğu sonuçlar hakkında White’ın gözlemlerini ele alacağız. Dördüncü bölümde ise White’ın geleneksel haliyle tarih anlatısına yönelik eleştirileri üzerinde duracağız. Tarihsel olayları anlatılaştırmanın, gerçekliğe sahici olmayan bir tutarlılık, bütünlük ve ahenk katarak onu estetize etme, “ehlileştirme” sonucunu getirdiği ve bu bakımdan özellikle modern çağın Dünya Savaşları ve Yahudi Soykırımı gibi dehşet verici, anlamlandırılması güç olayları karşısında hem yetersiz hem de ahlaken sakıncalı kaldığı konusunda White’ın tespitlerine ve buna karşı sunduğu çözüme eğileceğiz. Sonsöz kısmında ise White’ın bizzat ele almadığı, ancak yaklaşımının verimli bir şekilde uygulanabileceği diğer bazı konulara işaret edeceğiz.     

This article aims to survey Hayden White’s thoughts on the nature and uses of historical narrative. White has been the first historian to draw upon the linguistic turn to problematize historical narrative, emphasizing that it is not only an empty form used to communicate the results of research and analysis, but something that contributes its own content as well. The study is divided into four sections. In the first section, it dwells on White’s comparative analysis of different forms of historiography extending from the annals to a chronicle and thence to a fully emplotted narrative. In the next section, it focuses on White’s revelation of other fictive components of historical narrative, including the conceptual and figurative framework underlying it. In the third section, the study discusses White’s comments on the implications of this fictive aspect of historical narrative for such issues as the links of history with past reality, the nature of the knowledge it produces, and its similarities with and differences from literary fiction. In the fourth section, it examines White’s criticisms against traditional historical narrative. In particular, it focuses on his observation that narrativizing historical events leads to the aestheticization and domestication of past reality by providing it with a false coherence, integrity and completeness, and therefore proves inadequate and morally objectionable when faced with modernist events like the Holocaust. In the epilogue, the study suggests some other topics which, although not discussed by White himself, could be subjected to his line of analysis with fruitful results.

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Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-6242-7232
Yazar: Selim TEZCAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: ANKARA SOSYAL BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tuhed465558, journal = {Turkish History Education Journal}, issn = {}, eissn = {2147-4516}, address = {Ahmet ŞİMŞEK}, year = {2018}, volume = {7}, pages = {632 - 661}, doi = {10.17497/tuhed.465558}, title = {HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU}, key = {cite}, author = {TEZCAN, Selim} }
APA TEZCAN, S . (2018). HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU. Turkish History Education Journal, 7 (2), 632-661. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/tuhed/issue/39129/465558
MLA TEZCAN, S . "HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU". Turkish History Education Journal 7 (2018): 632-661 <http://dergipark.gov.tr/tuhed/issue/39129/465558>
Chicago TEZCAN, S . "HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU". Turkish History Education Journal 7 (2018): 632-661
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU AU - Selim TEZCAN Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Turkish History Education Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 632 EP - 661 VL - 7 IS - 2 SN - -2147-4516 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish History Education Journal HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU %A Selim TEZCAN %T HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU %D 2018 %J Turkish History Education Journal %P -2147-4516 %V 7 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD TEZCAN, Selim . "HAYDEN WHITE ve TARİH ANLATISI SORUNU". Turkish History Education Journal 7 / 2 (Ekim 2018): 632-661.